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Open AccessArticle

Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Has Different Impacts on Intestinal Barrier and Stem Cells by Its Route of Exposure

1
Department of Nutritional Science, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
2
Department of Cell Biological Science, Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-21, Nishi-11, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021, Japan
3
NODAI Genome Research Center, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
4
Department of Nutritional Science and Food Safety, Faculty of Applied Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100610
Received: 2 September 2020 / Revised: 20 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Effect of Mycotoxins)
The different effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on intestinal barrier and stem cells by its route of exposure remain less known. We explored the toxic effects of DON on intestinal barrier functions and stem cells after DON microinjection (luminal exposure) or addition to a culture medium (basolateral exposure) using three-dimensional mouse intestinal organoids (enteroids). The influx test using fluorescein-labeled dextran showed that basolateral DON exposure (1 micromolar (µM) disrupted intestinal barrier functions in enteroids compared with luminal DON exposure at the same concentration. Moreover, an immunofluorescence experiment of intestinal epithelial proteins, such as E-cadherin, claudin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and occludin, exhibited that only basolateral DON exposure broke down intestinal epithelial integrity. A time-lapse analysis using enteroids from leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5)-enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) transgenic mice and 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay indicated that only the basolateral DON exposure, but not luminal DON exposure, suppressed Lgr5+ stem cell count and proliferative cell ratio, respectively. These results revealed that basolateral DON exposure has larger impacts on intestinal barrier function and stem cells than luminal DON exposure. This is the first report that DON had different impacts on intestinal stem cells depending on the administration route. In addition, RNA sequencing analysis showed different expression of genes among enteroids after basolateral and luminal DON exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; intestinal barrier; intestinal stem cells; enteroids; basolateral exposure; luminal exposure; mycotoxin; organoids; microinjection deoxynivalenol; intestinal barrier; intestinal stem cells; enteroids; basolateral exposure; luminal exposure; mycotoxin; organoids; microinjection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hanyu, H.; Yokoi, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Ayabe, T.; Tanaka, K.; Uno, K.; Miyajima, K.; Saito, Y.; Iwatsuki, K.; Shimizu, M.; Tadaishi, M.; Kobayashi-Hattori, K. Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Has Different Impacts on Intestinal Barrier and Stem Cells by Its Route of Exposure. Toxins 2020, 12, 610. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100610

AMA Style

Hanyu H, Yokoi Y, Nakamura K, Ayabe T, Tanaka K, Uno K, Miyajima K, Saito Y, Iwatsuki K, Shimizu M, Tadaishi M, Kobayashi-Hattori K. Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Has Different Impacts on Intestinal Barrier and Stem Cells by Its Route of Exposure. Toxins. 2020; 12(10):610. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100610

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hanyu, Hikaru; Yokoi, Yuki; Nakamura, Kiminori; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Tanaka, Keisuke; Uno, Kinuko; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yuki; Iwatsuki, Ken; Shimizu, Makoto; Tadaishi, Miki; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo. 2020. "Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Has Different Impacts on Intestinal Barrier and Stem Cells by Its Route of Exposure" Toxins 12, no. 10: 610. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100610

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