Next Article in Journal
Comparative Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Plasmids and Expression Levels of Plasmid-Encoded Genes during Growth under Salt and Acid Stress Conditions
Next Article in Special Issue
Lebetin 2, a Snake Venom-Derived B-Type Natriuretic Peptide, Provides Immediate and Prolonged Protection against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Modulation of Post-Ischemic Inflammatory Response
Previous Article in Journal
Virulence Characteristics and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Humans in South Africa: 2006–2013
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Novel Bradykinin-Related Peptide, RVA-Thr6-BK, from the Skin Secretion of the Hejiang Frog; Ordorrana hejiangensis: Effects of Mammalian Isolated Smooth Muscle
Open AccessArticle

The Dual α-Amidation System in Scorpion Venom Glands

Departamento de Medicina Molecular y Bioprocesos, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Universidad 2001, Colonia Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos 62210, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(7), 425;
Received: 4 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
Many peptides in scorpion venoms are amidated at their C-termini. This post-translational modification is paramount for the correct biological function of ion channel toxins and antimicrobial peptides, among others. The discovery of canonical amidation sequences in transcriptome-derived scorpion proproteins suggests that a conserved enzymatic α-amidation system must be responsible for this modification of scorpion peptides. A transcriptomic approach was employed to identify sequences putatively encoding enzymes of the α-amidation pathway. A dual enzymatic α-amidation system was found, consisting of the membrane-anchored, bifunctional, peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) and its paralogs, soluble monofunctional peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHMm) and peptidyl-α-hydroxyglycine α-amidating lyase (PALm). Independent genes encode these three enzymes. Amino acid residues responsible for ion coordination and enzymatic activity are conserved in these sequences, suggesting that the enzymes are functional. Potential endoproteolytic recognition sites for proprotein convertases in the PAM sequence indicate that PAM-derived soluble isoforms may also be expressed. Sequences potentially encoding proprotein convertases (PC1 and PC2), carboxypeptidase E (CPE), and other enzymes of the α-amidation pathway, were also found, confirming the presence of this pathway in scorpions. View Full-Text
Keywords: amidation; evolution; posttranslational modifications; scorpion; transcriptomics amidation; evolution; posttranslational modifications; scorpion; transcriptomics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Delgado-Prudencio, G.; Possani, L.D.; Becerril, B.; Ortiz, E. The Dual α-Amidation System in Scorpion Venom Glands. Toxins 2019, 11, 425.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

Back to TopTop