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Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Ochratoxin A in Beers and Wines Commercialized in Paraguay

Dirección General de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, Centro Multidisciplinario de Investigaciones Tecnológicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción, San Lorenzo 1039, Paraguay
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional de Asunción, San Lorenzo 1039, Paraguay
CámaraParaguaya de Exportadores y Comercializadores de Cereales y Oleaginosas, Asunción 1548, Paraguay
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 308;
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infestations in Humans, Animals, Crops)
Alcoholic beverages can be contaminated with mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most frequently detected mycotoxinin wine and is produced by several species of Aspergillus. This mycotoxin is nephrotoxic and carcinogenic. In beer, the most commonly identified mycotoxin is deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of food contaminated with DON has been associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. Despite the harmful effects of mycotoxins on health, there are no regulations regarding their limits in alcoholic beverages in Paraguay. Here we determine the presence of OTA and DON in wine and beer, respectively. Four commercial brands of wine and twenty-nine brands of craft and industrial beerwere tested by the Agra quant ELISA method. One brand of wine was positive for OTA and seven brands of beer (one of them craft) were positive for DON. The values found for both toxins are below the recommended maximum intake proposed by international standards. Giving the high consumption of these products in the country, regulations and monitoring systems mustbe established to check the maximum levels of mycotoxins allowed in alcoholic beverages. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcoholic beverages; food safety; mycotoxins; risk alcoholic beverages; food safety; mycotoxins; risk
MDPI and ACS Style

Arrúa, A.A.; Mendes, J.M.; Arrúa, P.; Ferreira, F.P.; Caballero, G.; Cazal, C.; Kohli, M.M.; Peralta, I.; Ulke, G.; Fernández Ríos, D. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Ochratoxin A in Beers and Wines Commercialized in Paraguay. Toxins 2019, 11, 308.

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