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Open AccessArticle

Genotypes, Enterotoxin Gene Profiles, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Foodborne Outbreaks in Hangzhou, China

1
Department of Microbiology, Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310021, China
2
College of Life Information Science and Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060307
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 19 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Bacterial Enterotoxins)
Staphylococcal food poisoning is an illness caused by the consumption of food that contains sufficient amounts of one or more enterotoxins. In the present study, a total of 37 S. aureus isolates were recovered from leftover food, swabs from a kitchen environment, and patient feces associated with four foodborne outbreaks that occurred in Hangzhou, southeast China, and were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility. Classical enterotoxin and enterotoxin-like genes were profiled by PCR analysis. ST6-t304 was the most common clone (40.54%), followed by ST2315-t11687 (32.43%). Six clusters (A to F) were divided based on PFGE patterns, and Clusters A and C were the most common types, constituting 86.49% of all isolates. Moreover, sea was the most frequently identified enterotoxin gene (81.08%), followed by the combination of seg–sei–selm–seln–sleo–selu and sec–sell (each 48.65%). Five isolates also harbored the exotoxin cluster sed–selj–ser. In addition, resistance to penicillin (97.30%), erythromycin (37.85), tetracycline (32.43%), clindamycin, gentamicin, and sulfamethoxazole (each 10.81%) was observed. Our research demonstrated the link between leftover foods and patients by molecular typing and detecting the profiles of enterotoxin or enterotoxin-like genes in human and food isolates. S. aureus maintains an extensive repertoire of enterotoxins and drug resistance genes that could cause potential health threats to consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: staphylococcal food poisoning; staphylococcal enterotoxins; multilocus sequence typing; spa typing; pulse-field gel electrophoresis; drug resistance staphylococcal food poisoning; staphylococcal enterotoxins; multilocus sequence typing; spa typing; pulse-field gel electrophoresis; drug resistance
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Chen, Q.; Xie, S. Genotypes, Enterotoxin Gene Profiles, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Foodborne Outbreaks in Hangzhou, China. Toxins 2019, 11, 307.

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