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Tetrodotoxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Vectors of the North Atlantic Waters (Portuguese Maritime Territory, and Morocco Coast)

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4619-007 Porto, Portugal
Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research-CIMAR/CIIMAR, University of Porto, Novo Edificio do Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Avenida General Norton de Matos, 4450-208 S/N Matosinhos, Portugal
Laboratorio CIFGA S.A., Plaza de Santo Domingo no. 20, 5a planta, 27001 Lugo, Spain
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Santiago of Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
Marine Biology Station of Funchal, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Madeira, 9000-107 Funchal, Portugal
Center of Interdisciplinary Marine and Environmental Research of Madeira—CIIMAR-Madeira, Edif. Madeira Tecnopolo, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Portugal
cE3c/GBA—Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group and Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, São Miguel, Azores, Portugal
Phycology Research Unit—Biotechnology, Ecosystems Ecology and Valorization Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences El Jadida, University Chouaib Doukkali, BP20 El Jadida, Morocco
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2019, 11(6), 306;
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 24 May 2019 / Accepted: 25 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tetrodotoxins)
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent alkaloid typically from tropical ecosystems, but in the last decade its presence has been more pronounced in the temperate waters of the Atlantic. In its last scientific opinion, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) stressed the need for data regarding TTX prevalence in European waters. To address EFSA’s concerns, benthic organisms such as mollusks, crustaceans, echinoderms and fish with different feeding habits were collected along the Portuguese continental coast, islands (São Miguel, Azores, and Madeira) and the northwestern Moroccan coast. A total of 165 samples were analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) and ultra high performance chromatography mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Geographical tendencies were detected as follows, by descending order: S. Miguel Island (Azores), Moroccan coast, Madeira Island and Portuguese continental coast. The toxin amounts detected were significant, above the Dutch limit value established in 2017, showing the importance and the need for continuity of these studies to gain more knowledge about the prevalence of these toxins, unraveling new vectors, in order to better assess human health risk. This work represents a general overview of new TTX bearers (7) most of them in gastropods (Patella depressa, Nucella lapillus, Onchidella celtica and Aplysia depilans), followed by echinoderms (Echinus esculentus and Ophidiaster ophidianus) and puffer fish Sphoeroides marmoratus. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; new vectors; North Atlantic Waters tetrodotoxin; new vectors; North Atlantic Waters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Barreiro, A.; Kaufmann, M.; Neto, A.I.; Hassouani, M.; Sabour, B.; Alfonso, A.; Botana, L.M.; Vasconcelos, V. Tetrodotoxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Vectors of the North Atlantic Waters (Portuguese Maritime Territory, and Morocco Coast). Toxins 2019, 11, 306.

AMA Style

Silva M, Rodríguez I, Barreiro A, Kaufmann M, Neto AI, Hassouani M, Sabour B, Alfonso A, Botana LM, Vasconcelos V. Tetrodotoxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Vectors of the North Atlantic Waters (Portuguese Maritime Territory, and Morocco Coast). Toxins. 2019; 11(6):306.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silva, Marisa, Inés Rodríguez, Aldo Barreiro, Manfred Kaufmann, Ana I. Neto, Meryem Hassouani, Brahim Sabour, Amparo Alfonso, Luis M. Botana, and Vitor Vasconcelos. 2019. "Tetrodotoxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Vectors of the North Atlantic Waters (Portuguese Maritime Territory, and Morocco Coast)" Toxins 11, no. 6: 306.

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