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Open AccessArticle

The Ecological Importance of Toxicity: Sea Anemones Maintain Toxic Defence When Bleached

College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 266;
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicological Challenges of Aquatic Toxins)
Cnidarians are amongst the most venomous animals on the planet. They are also under significant threat due to the impacts of climate change. Corals and anemones undergo climate-induced bleaching during extreme environmental conditions, where a loss of symbiotic photosynthetic algae (zooxanthellae) causes whitening in colour, loss of internal food supply, and reduction in health, which can ultimately lead to death. What has yet to be determined is whether bleaching causes a reduction in the production or quality of venom. In this study, the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor was exposed to long-term light-induced bleaching to examine the effect that bleaching has on venom. Venom quality and quantity, as determined through lethality and haemolysis measures and nematocyst production was highly preserved over the five-month imposed bleaching event. Maintenance of venom and nematocyst production, despite a loss of an internal food source provided by endosymbiotic algae, indicates both the ecological importance of maintaining toxicity and a remarkable resilience that anemones have to major environmental stressors. View Full-Text
Keywords: anemone; bleaching; climate change; haemolysis; resilience; venom anemone; bleaching; climate change; haemolysis; resilience; venom
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Hoepner, C.M.; Abbott, C.A.; Burke da Silva, K. The Ecological Importance of Toxicity: Sea Anemones Maintain Toxic Defence When Bleached. Toxins 2019, 11, 266.

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