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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Endothelial Microparticles in Uremia: Biomarkers and Potential Therapeutic Targets

1
Experimental Nephrology Laboratory, Basic Pathology Department, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba 81531-980, Brazil
2
Post-Graduation in Medicine Department, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo 03155-000, SP, Brazil
3
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas 13083-887, Brazil
4
Division of Nephrology, Ambroise Paré University Hospital, APHP, Boulogne-Billancourt, 92100 Paris, France
5
France and Inserm U1018, Team 5, CESP, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, 94800 Villejuif, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(5), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050267
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Endothelial Effects of Uremic Toxins)
Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are vesicles derived from cell membranes, which contain outsourced phosphatidylserine and express adhesion molecules, such as cadherin, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, and integrins. EMPs are expressed under physiological conditions and continue circulating in the plasma. However, in pathologic conditions their levels increase, and they assume a pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulant role via interactions with monocytes; these effects are related to the development of atherosclerosis. Chronic kidney dysfunction (CKD) characterizes this dysfunctional scenario through the accumulation of uremic solutes in the circulating plasma, whose toxicity is related to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the formation of EMPs and their biological effects in the uremic environment. Data from previous research demonstrate that uremic toxins are closely associated with the activation of inflammatory biomarkers, cardiovascular dysfunction processes, and the release of EMPs. The impact of a decrease in circulating EMPs in clinical studies has not yet been evaluated. Thus, whether MPs are biochemical markers and/or therapeutic targets has yet to be established. View Full-Text
Keywords: Endothelial microparticles; cardiovascular disease; uremia Endothelial microparticles; cardiovascular disease; uremia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Favretto, G.; Cunha, R.S.; Dalboni, M.A.; Oliveira, R.B.; Barreto, F.C.; Massy, Z.A.; Stinghen, A.E.M. Endothelial Microparticles in Uremia: Biomarkers and Potential Therapeutic Targets. Toxins 2019, 11, 267.

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