Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Mould Contamination of Selected Plants from Meadows Covered by the Agri-Environmental Program
Next Article in Special Issue
The Influence of Processing Parameters on the Mitigation of Deoxynivalenol during Industrial Baking
Previous Article in Journal
l-Proline Alleviates Kidney Injury Caused by AFB1 and AFM1 through Regulating Excessive Apoptosis of Kidney Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fate of Ergot Alkaloids during Laboratory Scale Durum Processing and Pasta Production
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Mycotoxins during the Processes of Nixtamalization and Tortilla Production

German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department Safety in the Food Chain, Max-Dohrn-Str. 8-10, D-10589 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(4), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040227
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 6 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
  |  
PDF [1034 KB, uploaded 16 April 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Tortillas are a traditional staple food in Mesoamerican cuisine, which have also become popular on a global level, e.g., for wraps or as snacks (tortilla chips). Traditional tortilla production includes alkaline cooking (nixtamalization) of maize kernels. This article summarizes the current knowledge on mycotoxin changes during the nixtamalization of maize and tortilla production. Upon nixtamalization, mycotoxins can be affected in different ways. On the one hand, the toxins can be physically removed during steeping and washing. On the other hand, mycotoxins might be degraded, modified, or released/bound in the matrix by high pH and/or high temperature. This also applies to the subsequent baking of tortillas. Many studies have shown reduced mycotoxin levels in alkali-cooked maize and in tortillas. Most of the available data relate to aflatoxins and fumonisins. The reduction (and detoxification) of aflatoxins during nixtamalization might, however, be partially reversed in acidic conditions. The loss of fumonisin concentrations is to some extent accompanied by hydrolyzation and by lower toxicity. However, some studies have indicated the potential formation of toxicologically relevant modified forms and matrix-associated fumonisins. More data are required to assess the influence of alkaline cooking regarding such modified forms, as well as mycotoxins other than aflatoxins/fumonisins. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; alkaline; hydrolyzed fumonisins; fumonisins; food processing; maize; masa; matrix-associated mycotoxins; modified mycotoxins; tortillas aflatoxins; alkaline; hydrolyzed fumonisins; fumonisins; food processing; maize; masa; matrix-associated mycotoxins; modified mycotoxins; tortillas
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schaarschmidt, S.; Fauhl-Hassek, C. Mycotoxins during the Processes of Nixtamalization and Tortilla Production. Toxins 2019, 11, 227.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top