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l-Proline Alleviates Kidney Injury Caused by AFB1 and AFM1 through Regulating Excessive Apoptosis of Kidney Cells

1,2,3,†, 1,2,3,†, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3 and 1,2,3,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
2
Key Laboratory of Quality & Safety Control for Milk and Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
3
Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2019, 11(4), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040226
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infestations in Humans, Animals, Crops)
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Abstract

The toxicity and related mechanisms of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the mouse kidney were studied, and the role of l-proline in alleviating kidney damage was investigated. In a 28-day toxicity mouse model, thirty mice were divided into six groups: control (without treatment), l-proline group (10 g/kg body weight (b.w.)), AFB1 group (0.5 mg/kg b.w.), AFM1 (3.5 mg/kg b.w.), AFB1 + l-proline group and AFM1 + l-proline group. Kidney index and biochemical indicators were detected, and pathological staining was observed. Using a human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cell model, cell apoptosis rate and apoptotic proteins expressions were detected. The results showed that AFB1 and AFM1 activated pathways related with oxidative stress and caused kidney injury; l-proline significantly alleviated abnormal expressions of biochemical parameters and pathological kidney damage, as well as excessive cell apoptosis in the AF-treated models. Moreover, proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) was verified to regulate the levels of l-proline and downstream apoptotic factors (Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved Caspase-3) compared with the control (p < 0.05). In conclusion, l-proline could protect mouse kidneys from AFB1 and AFM1 through alleviating oxidative damage and decreasing downstream apoptosis, which deserves further research and development. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; aflatoxin M1; l-proline; proline dehydrogenase; apoptosis aflatoxin B1; aflatoxin M1; l-proline; proline dehydrogenase; apoptosis
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Li, H.; Li, S.; Yang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Zheng, N. l-Proline Alleviates Kidney Injury Caused by AFB1 and AFM1 through Regulating Excessive Apoptosis of Kidney Cells. Toxins 2019, 11, 226.

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