Next Article in Journal
Application of an Endothelial Cell Culture Assay for the Detection of Neutralizing Anti-Clostridium Perfringens Beta-Toxin Antibodies in a Porcine Vaccination Trial
Next Article in Special Issue
l-Proline Alleviates Kidney Injury Caused by AFB1 and AFM1 through Regulating Excessive Apoptosis of Kidney Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Production of Cyanotoxins by Microcystis aeruginosa Mediates Interactions with the Mixotrophic Flagellate Cryptomonas
Previous Article in Special Issue
Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization of Aflatoxin M1 Intake through Consumption of Milk and Yoghurt by Student Population in Serbia and Greece
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2019, 11(4), 224;

Occurrence of Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species and Competitive Fungi on Preharvest Maize Ear Rot in Poland

Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznań, Poland
Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Strzeszyńska 34, 60-479 Poznań, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infestations in Humans, Animals, Crops)
PDF [981 KB, uploaded 18 April 2019]


Maize has become one of the most important crops for food and feed production—both as a silage and crop residue worldwide. The present study aimed to identify the co-occurrence of Fusarium subglutinans, Fusarium verticillioides, Trichoderma atroviride, Sarocladium zeae, and Lecanicillium lecanii on maize ear rot. Further, the accumulation of mycotoxins as secondary metabolites of Fusarium spp. in maize ear samples was also analyzed. Maize ear samples were collected between 2014 and 2017 from two main maize growing areas in Poland (Greater Poland and Silesia region). A significant difference was found in the frequency of two main Fusarium spp. that infect maize ears, namely F. subglutinans and F. verticillioides. In addition to Fusarium spp. T. atroviride, S. zeae, and L. lecanii were also identified. T. atroviride species was found in 14% of maize samples examined between 2014 and 2017, particularly with a high percentage of Trichoderma spp. recorded in 2014, i.e., in 31% of samples. However, mycotoxin content (beauvericin and fumonisins) varied, depending on both the location and year of sampling. The interaction of fungi and insects inhabiting maize ear and kernel is very complex and not yet elucidated. Therefore, further research is required in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; maize ear rot; Trichoderma; Sarocladium; Lecanicillium; Fusarium species mycotoxins; maize ear rot; Trichoderma; Sarocladium; Lecanicillium; Fusarium species

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gromadzka, K.; Błaszczyk, L.; Chełkowski, J.; Waśkiewicz, A. Occurrence of Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species and Competitive Fungi on Preharvest Maize Ear Rot in Poland. Toxins 2019, 11, 224.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top