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Toxins 2019, 11(4), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040224

Occurrence of Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species and Competitive Fungi on Preharvest Maize Ear Rot in Poland

1
Department of Chemistry, Poznań University of Life Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-625 Poznań, Poland
2
Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Strzeszyńska 34, 60-479 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Infestations in Humans, Animals, Crops)
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Abstract

Maize has become one of the most important crops for food and feed production—both as a silage and crop residue worldwide. The present study aimed to identify the co-occurrence of Fusarium subglutinans, Fusarium verticillioides, Trichoderma atroviride, Sarocladium zeae, and Lecanicillium lecanii on maize ear rot. Further, the accumulation of mycotoxins as secondary metabolites of Fusarium spp. in maize ear samples was also analyzed. Maize ear samples were collected between 2014 and 2017 from two main maize growing areas in Poland (Greater Poland and Silesia region). A significant difference was found in the frequency of two main Fusarium spp. that infect maize ears, namely F. subglutinans and F. verticillioides. In addition to Fusarium spp. T. atroviride, S. zeae, and L. lecanii were also identified. T. atroviride species was found in 14% of maize samples examined between 2014 and 2017, particularly with a high percentage of Trichoderma spp. recorded in 2014, i.e., in 31% of samples. However, mycotoxin content (beauvericin and fumonisins) varied, depending on both the location and year of sampling. The interaction of fungi and insects inhabiting maize ear and kernel is very complex and not yet elucidated. Therefore, further research is required in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; maize ear rot; Trichoderma; Sarocladium; Lecanicillium; Fusarium species mycotoxins; maize ear rot; Trichoderma; Sarocladium; Lecanicillium; Fusarium species
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Gromadzka, K.; Błaszczyk, L.; Chełkowski, J.; Waśkiewicz, A. Occurrence of Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species and Competitive Fungi on Preharvest Maize Ear Rot in Poland. Toxins 2019, 11, 224.

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