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Fumonisin Production by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize Genotypes Cultivated in Different Environments

1
Plant Production Department, Universidade Federal do Tocantins—Campus Gurupi, Gurupi, Tocantins 77402-970, Brazil
2
Biotechnology Department, Universidade Federal do Tocantins—Campus Gurupi, Gurupi, Tocantins 77402-970, Brazil
3
Department of Entomology, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais 36570-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(4), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040215
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 10 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Fumonisins are mycotoxins (MTs) produced mainly by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides, the main pathogens of maize which cause ear rot. The aim of this work was to evaluate some factors that may lead to high fumonisin production by F. verticillioides in maize grains, correlating the pathogen inoculation method with different genotypes grown in four Brazilian states. Experiments were conducted in 2015–2016 in maize crops from experimental maize fields located in four distinct states of Brazil. Results showed that contamination by fumonisin mycotoxins occurred even on symptomatic or asymptomatic grains. In all municipalities, the samples showed levels of fumonisin B1 that were higher than would be tolerable for the human consumption of corn products (the current tolerance limit for fumonisin is 1.5 μg g−1). High severity of grains infected with F. verticillioides does not always show high concentrations of fumonisins. Environments with higher temperatures may influence the production of high concentrations of fumonisin in maize hybrids. Spray inoculation methods and inoculation at the center of spikes did not influence fumonisin concentrations. Results showed that the hybrids P3630H, P32R48 and P3250 presented higher disease severity, as well as higher mycotoxin levels in the studied locations with higher temperatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Zea mays L.; mycotoxins; temperature; maize ear rot Zea mays L.; mycotoxins; temperature; maize ear rot
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rosa Junior, O.F.; Dalcin, M.S.; Nascimento, V.L.; Haesbaert, F.M.; Ferreira, T.P.S.; Fidelis, R.R.; Sarmento, R.A.; Aguiar, R.W.S.; Oliveira, E.E.; Santos, G.R. Fumonisin Production by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize Genotypes Cultivated in Different Environments. Toxins 2019, 11, 215.

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