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Reduction of Mycotoxins during Fermentation of Whole Grain Sorghum to Whole Grain Ting (a Southern African Food)

Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(3), 180;
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 20 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
PDF [431 KB, uploaded 25 March 2019]


Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that pose health risks to exposed individuals, requiring necessary measures to reduce them. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), mycotoxins were quantified in whole grain sorghum and ting subsequently derived from two sorghum varieties (high and low tannin). The whole grain (WG) ting samples were obtained by fermenting sorghum with Lactobacillus fermentum strains (FUA 3165 and FUA 3321). Naturally (spontaneously) fermented WG-ting under the same conditions were equally analysed. Among the mycotoxins investigated, fumonisin B1 (FB1), B2 (FB2), B3 (FB3), T-2 toxin (T-2), zearalenone (ZEA), alpha-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (β-ZOL) were detected in sorghum. Results obtained showed that mycotoxin concentrations significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced after fermentation. In particular, L. fermentum FUA 3321 showed the capability to significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduce all the mycotoxins by 98% for FB1, 84% for T-2 and up to 82% for α-ZOL, compared to raw low tannin sorghum. Fermenting with the L. fermentum strains showed potential to effectively reduce mycotoxin contamination in whole grain ting. Thus, we recommended L. fermentum FUA 3321 in particular to be used as a potential starter culture in sorghum fermentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: sorghum; ting; fermentation; Lactobacillus fermentum; mycotoxins; food safety sorghum; ting; fermentation; Lactobacillus fermentum; mycotoxins; food safety

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Adebo, O.A.; Kayitesi, E.; Njobeh, P.B. Reduction of Mycotoxins during Fermentation of Whole Grain Sorghum to Whole Grain Ting (a Southern African Food). Toxins 2019, 11, 180.

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