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Pseudomonas putida Responds to the Toxin GraT by Inducing Ribosome Biogenesis Factors and Repressing TCA Cycle Enzymes

1
Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, 51010 Tartu, Estonia
2
Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020103
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems)
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Abstract

The potentially self-poisonous toxin-antitoxin modules are widespread in bacterial chromosomes, but despite extensive studies, their biological importance remains poorly understood. Here, we used whole-cell proteomics to study the cellular effects of the Pseudomonas putida toxin GraT that is known to inhibit growth and ribosome maturation in a cold-dependent manner when the graA antitoxin gene is deleted from the genome. Proteomic analysis of P. putida wild-type and ΔgraA strains at 30 °C and 25 °C, where the growth is differently affected by GraT, revealed two major responses to GraT at both temperatures. First, ribosome biogenesis factors, including the RNA helicase DeaD and RNase III, are upregulated in ΔgraA. This likely serves to alleviate the ribosome biogenesis defect of the ΔgraA strain. Secondly, proteome data indicated that GraT induces downregulation of central carbon metabolism, as suggested by the decreased levels of TCA cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase Idh, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase subunit SucA, and succinate-CoA ligase subunit SucD. Metabolomic analysis revealed remarkable GraT-dependent accumulation of oxaloacetate at 25 °C and a reduced amount of malate, another TCA intermediate. The accumulation of oxaloacetate is likely due to decreased flux through the TCA cycle but also indicates inhibition of anabolic pathways in GraT-affected bacteria. Thus, proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the ΔgraA strain revealed that GraT-mediated stress triggers several responses that reprogram the cell physiology to alleviate the GraT-caused damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxin-antitoxin system; GraTA of HigBA family; Pseudomonas putida; whole-cell proteome; ribosome biogenesis; metabolome; TCA cycle toxin-antitoxin system; GraTA of HigBA family; Pseudomonas putida; whole-cell proteome; ribosome biogenesis; metabolome; TCA cycle
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Ainelo, A.; Porosk, R.; Kilk, K.; Rosendahl, S.; Remme, J.; Hõrak, R. Pseudomonas putida Responds to the Toxin GraT by Inducing Ribosome Biogenesis Factors and Repressing TCA Cycle Enzymes. Toxins 2019, 11, 103.

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