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Open AccessArticle

Intraspecific Variability in the Toxin Production and Toxin Profiles of In Vitro Cultures of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis (Dinophyceae) from French Polynesia

1
Laboratoire de recherche sur les Biotoxines Marines Institut Louis Malardé-UMR 241 EIO, 98713 Papeete-Tahiti, French Polynesia
2
Laboratoire Phycotoxines, IFREMER, Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(12), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120735
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 11 December 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 17 December 2019
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. The toxin production and toxin profiles were explored in four clones of G. polynesiensis originating from different islands in French Polynesia with contrasted CP risk: RIK7 (Mangareva, Gambier), NHA4 (Nuku Hiva, Marquesas), RAI-1 (Raivavae, Australes), and RG92 (Rangiroa, Tuamotu). Productions of CTXs, maitotoxins (MTXs), and gambierone group analogs were examined at exponential and stationary growth phases using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. While none of the strains was found to produce known MTX compounds, all strains showed high overall P-CTX production ranging from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 4.6 ± 0.7 pg cell−1. In total, nine P-CTX analogs were detected, depending on strain and growth phase. The production of gambierone, as well as 44-methylgamberione, was also confirmed in G. polynesiensis. This study highlighted: (i) intraspecific variations in toxin production and profiles between clones from distinct geographic origins and (ii) the noticeable increase in toxin production of both CTXs, in particular CTX4A/B, and gambierone group analogs from the exponential to the stationary phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gambierdiscus polynesiensis; ciguatera; ciguatoxins; gambierone; 44-methylgambierone; LC-MS/MS; CBA-N2a; toxin profiles Gambierdiscus polynesiensis; ciguatera; ciguatoxins; gambierone; 44-methylgambierone; LC-MS/MS; CBA-N2a; toxin profiles
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Longo, S.; Sibat, M.; Viallon, J.; Darius, H.T.; Hess, P.; Chinain, M. Intraspecific Variability in the Toxin Production and Toxin Profiles of In Vitro Cultures of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis (Dinophyceae) from French Polynesia. Toxins 2019, 11, 735.

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