Next Article in Journal
Metabolome Variation between Strains of Microcystis aeruginosa by Untargeted Mass Spectrometry
Next Article in Special Issue
Analysis of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Queensland Honey: Using Low Temperature Chromatography to Resolve Stereoisomers and Identify Botanical Sources by UHPLC-MS/MS
Previous Article in Journal
Ciguatoxin Occurrence in Food-Web Components of a Cuban Coral Reef Ecosystem: Risk-Assessment Implications
Previous Article in Special Issue
Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Mycotoxin Citreoviridin
Open AccessArticle

A Rapid Extraction Method Combined with a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Immunoassay for the Detection of Amatoxins

1
Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Unit, Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710, USA
2
Produce Safety and Microbiology Unit, Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(12), 724; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11120724
Received: 22 November 2019 / Revised: 5 December 2019 / Accepted: 9 December 2019 / Published: 11 December 2019
Amatoxins (AMAs) are lethal toxins found in a variety of mushroom species. Detection methods are needed to determine the occurrence of AMAs in mushroom species suspected in mushroom poisonings. In this manuscript, we report the generation of novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, AMA9G3 and AMA9C12) and the development of a competitive, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) that is sensitive at 1 ng mL−1 and shows selectivity for α-amanitin (α-AMA) and γ-amanitin (γ-AMA), and less for β-amanitin (β-AMA). In order to decrease the overall time needed for analysis, the extraction procedure for mushrooms was also simplified. A rapid (1 min) extraction procedure of AMAs using solvents as simple as water alone was successfully demonstrated using Amanita mushrooms. Together, the extraction method and the mAb-based ELISA represent a simple and rapid method that readily detects AMAs extracted from mushroom samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: amatoxins; amanitins; immunoassay; monoclonal antibodies; ELISA; death cap mushrooms amatoxins; amanitins; immunoassay; monoclonal antibodies; ELISA; death cap mushrooms
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Bever, C.S.; Hnasko, R.M.; Cheng, L.W.; Stanker, L.H. A Rapid Extraction Method Combined with a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Immunoassay for the Detection of Amatoxins. Toxins 2019, 11, 724.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop