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Open AccessArticle

Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Mycotoxin Citreoviridin

1
Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
2
Department of Food and Life Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
3
Shinsei Chemical Company Ltd., Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110630
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
Citreoviridin (CTV) in an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATPase that has been isolated from molded yellow rice and linked to the human disease Shoshin-kakke (acute cardiac beriberi). The disease results from a deficiency of thiamine, however, purified CTV can reproduce the symptoms in experimental animals. The link between CTV and Shoshin-kakke has been difficult to resolve, in part because cases of the disease are rare. In addition to rice, CTV has been found in maize, pecan nuts, and wheat products. A method to screen for CTV and its geometric isomer, iso-CTV, in commodities was developed, based upon the isolation of two novel monoclonal antibodies (mAb). In an antigen-immobilized competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format (CI-ELISA), the observed IC50s for CTV were 11 ng/mL and 18 ng/mL (mAbs 2-2 and 2-4, respectively). The assays were relatively tolerant to methanol and acetonitrile, which allowed their application to the detection of CTV in spiked polished white rice. For quantification, a standard mixture of CTV and iso-CTV was used, along with matrix matched calibration. The dynamic range of the ELISA using mAb 2-4 was equivalent to 0.23 to 2.22 mg/kg in rice. Recoveries over the range of 0.36 to 7.23 mg/kg averaged 97 ± 10%. The results suggest that the mAb 2-4-based immunoassay can be applied to the screening of white rice for CTV. Both mAbs were also observed to significantly enhance the fluorescence of the toxin. View Full-Text
Keywords: citreoviridin; antibody; immunoassay; rice citreoviridin; antibody; immunoassay; rice
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maragos, C.M.; Uchiyama, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Kominato, F.; Sugita-Konishi, Y. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Mycotoxin Citreoviridin. Toxins 2019, 11, 630.

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