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Open AccessArticle

Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Mycotoxin Citreoviridin

Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
Department of Food and Life Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Azabu University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan
Shinsei Chemical Company Ltd., Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 630;
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published: 30 October 2019
Citreoviridin (CTV) in an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATPase that has been isolated from molded yellow rice and linked to the human disease Shoshin-kakke (acute cardiac beriberi). The disease results from a deficiency of thiamine, however, purified CTV can reproduce the symptoms in experimental animals. The link between CTV and Shoshin-kakke has been difficult to resolve, in part because cases of the disease are rare. In addition to rice, CTV has been found in maize, pecan nuts, and wheat products. A method to screen for CTV and its geometric isomer, iso-CTV, in commodities was developed, based upon the isolation of two novel monoclonal antibodies (mAb). In an antigen-immobilized competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format (CI-ELISA), the observed IC50s for CTV were 11 ng/mL and 18 ng/mL (mAbs 2-2 and 2-4, respectively). The assays were relatively tolerant to methanol and acetonitrile, which allowed their application to the detection of CTV in spiked polished white rice. For quantification, a standard mixture of CTV and iso-CTV was used, along with matrix matched calibration. The dynamic range of the ELISA using mAb 2-4 was equivalent to 0.23 to 2.22 mg/kg in rice. Recoveries over the range of 0.36 to 7.23 mg/kg averaged 97 ± 10%. The results suggest that the mAb 2-4-based immunoassay can be applied to the screening of white rice for CTV. Both mAbs were also observed to significantly enhance the fluorescence of the toxin. View Full-Text
Keywords: citreoviridin; antibody; immunoassay; rice citreoviridin; antibody; immunoassay; rice
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maragos, C.M.; Uchiyama, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Kominato, F.; Sugita-Konishi, Y. Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies for the Mycotoxin Citreoviridin. Toxins 2019, 11, 630.

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