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Phytotoxic Metabolites Produced by Legume-Associated Ascochyta and Its Related Genera in the Dothideomycetes

by Wonyong Kim 1,2 and Weidong Chen 1,3,*
1
Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
2
Korean Lichen Research Institute, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Jeonnam 57922, Korea
3
USDA-ARS Grain Legume Genetics and Physiology Research Unit, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110627
Received: 30 September 2019 / Revised: 27 October 2019 / Accepted: 28 October 2019 / Published: 29 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins: Producing Fungi and Mechanisms of Phytotoxicity)
Phytotoxins, secondary metabolites toxic to plants and produced by fungi, are believed to play an important role in disease development by targeting host cellular machineries and/or interfering with host immune responses. The Ascochyta blight diseases on different legume plants are caused by Ascochyta and related taxa, such as Phoma. The causal agents of the Ascochyta blight are often associated with specific legume plants, showing a relatively narrow host range. The legume-associated Ascochyta and Phoma are known to produce a diverse array of polyketide-derived secondary metabolites, many of which exhibited significant phytotoxicity and have been claimed as virulence or pathogenicity factors. In this article, we reviewed the current state of knowledge on the diversity and biological activities of the phytotoxic compounds produced by Ascochyta and Phoma species. Also, we touched on the secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified thus far and discussed the role of metabolites in the fungal biology. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytotoxin; Ascochyta; Phoma; Didymella; secondary metabolites; gene cluster; legumes phytotoxin; Ascochyta; Phoma; Didymella; secondary metabolites; gene cluster; legumes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, W.; Chen, W. Phytotoxic Metabolites Produced by Legume-Associated Ascochyta and Its Related Genera in the Dothideomycetes. Toxins 2019, 11, 627.

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