Next Article in Journal
Venom Diversity and Evolution in the Most Divergent Cone Snail Genus Profundiconus
Next Article in Special Issue
Rapid and Differential Evolution of the Venom Composition of a Parasitoid Wasp Depending on the Host Strain
Previous Article in Journal
Determination of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 in Vegetable Oils Using Fe3O4/rGO Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Fluorescence with Post-Column Photochemical Derivatization
Previous Article in Special Issue
Venom in Furs: Facial Masks as Aposematic Signals in a Venomous Mammal
Open AccessArticle

Prey and Venom Efficacy of Male and Female Wandering Spider, Phoneutria boliviensis (Araneae: Ctenidae)

Grupo de Investigación Biología y Ecología de Artrópodos (BEA), Corporación Huiltur y Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Tolima, Altos de Santa Helena, Ibagué 730001, Colombia
CIBIO Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, InBIO, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Rua Padre Armando Quintas 7, 4485-661 Vairão, Vila do Conde, Portugal
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Universidad de Ibagué, Carrera 22 calle 67, Ibagué 730001, Colombia
Grupo de Investigación en Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad del Tolima, Altos de Santa Helena, Ibagué 730001, Colombia
Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 61137 Brno, Czech Republic
Grupo Multidisciplinario en Ecología para la Agricultura, Centro Universitario Regional del Este, Treinta y Tres 33000, Uruguay
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 622;
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 20 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 27 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Ecology of Venom)
Spiders rely on venom to catch prey and few species are even capable of capturing vertebrates. The majority of spiders are generalist predators, possessing complex venom, in which different toxins seem to target different types of prey. In this study, we focused on the trophic ecology and venom toxicity of Phoneutria boliviensis F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, a Central American spider of medical importance. We tested the hypothesis that its venom is adapted to catch vertebrate prey by studying its trophic ecology and venom toxicity against selected vertebrate and invertebrate prey. We compared both trophic ecology (based on acceptance experiments) and toxicity (based on bioassays) among sexes of this species. We found that P. boliviensis accepted geckos, spiders, and cockroaches as prey, but rejected frogs. There was no difference in acceptance between males and females. The venom of P. boliviensis was far more efficient against vertebrate (geckos) than invertebrate (spiders) prey in both immobilization time and LD50. Surprisingly, venom of males was more efficient than that of females. Our results suggest that P. boliviensis has adapted its venom to catch vertebrates, which may explain its toxicity to humans. View Full-Text
Keywords: venom; toxins; LD50; trophic niche; sexual dimorphism venom; toxins; LD50; trophic niche; sexual dimorphism
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Valenzuela-Rojas, J.C.; González-Gómez, J.C.; van der Meijden, A.; Cortés, J.N.; Guevara, G.; Franco, L.M.; Pekár, S.; García, L.F. Prey and Venom Efficacy of Male and Female Wandering Spider, Phoneutria boliviensis (Araneae: Ctenidae). Toxins 2019, 11, 622.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop