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Open AccessArticle

Rapid and Differential Evolution of the Venom Composition of a Parasitoid Wasp Depending on the Host Strain

Université Côte d’Azur, INRA, CNRS, ISA, 06 903 Sophia Antipolis, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
F. C. and H. M.-H. should be considered joint first author.
D. C. and M. P. should be considered joint last author.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 629; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110629
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 24 October 2019 / Accepted: 25 October 2019 / Published: 29 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolutionary Ecology of Venom)
Parasitoid wasps rely primarily on venom to suppress the immune response and regulate the physiology of their host. Intraspecific variability of venom protein composition has been documented in some species, but its evolutionary potential is poorly understood. We performed an experimental evolution initiated with the crosses of two lines of Leptopilina boulardi of different venom composition to generate variability and create new combinations of venom factors. The offspring were maintained for 10 generations on two strains of Drosophila melanogaster differing in resistance/susceptibility to the parental parasitoid lines. The venom composition of individuals was characterized by a semi-automatic analysis of 1D SDS-PAGE electrophoresis protein profiles whose accuracy was checked by Western blot analysis of well-characterized venom proteins. Results made evident a rapid and differential evolution of the venom composition on both hosts and showed that the proteins beneficial on one host can be costly on the other. Overall, we demonstrated the capacity of rapid evolution of the venom composition in parasitoid wasps, important regulators of arthropod populations, suggesting a potential for adaptation to new hosts. Our approach also proved relevant in identifying, among the diversity of venom proteins, those possibly involved in parasitism success and whose role deserves to be deepened. View Full-Text
Keywords: parasitoid wasp; venom composition; experimental evolution; 1D protein electrophoresis; host specificity; Leptopilina boulardi; Drosophila melanogaster parasitoid wasp; venom composition; experimental evolution; 1D protein electrophoresis; host specificity; Leptopilina boulardi; Drosophila melanogaster
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Cavigliasso, F.; Mathé-Hubert, H.; Kremmer, L.; Rebuf, C.; Gatti, J.-L.; Malausa, T.; Colinet, D.; Poirié, M. Rapid and Differential Evolution of the Venom Composition of a Parasitoid Wasp Depending on the Host Strain. Toxins 2019, 11, 629.

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