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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Oil on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Aspergillus carbonarius Isolates

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Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência Animal, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil
2
Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Fermentaciones Industriales, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Buenos Aires B1900ASH, Argentina
3
Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunologia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro 23890-000, Brazil
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Departamento de Zootecnia e Desenvolvimento Agrossocioambiental Sustentável, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro 24230-340, Brazil
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Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físico Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Río Cuarto, Córdoba X5804BYA, Argentina
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Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100579
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 21 September 2019 / Accepted: 30 September 2019 / Published: 5 October 2019
Aspergillus carbonarius is a saprobic filamentous fungus, food spoiling fungus and a producer of ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxin. In this study, the in vitro antifungal activity of neem oil (0.12% p/p of azadirachtin) was evaluated against the growth of six strains of A. carbonarius and the production of OTA. Four different concentrations of neem oil were tested in addition to three incubation times. Only the concentration of 0.3% of neem oil inhibited more than 95% of the strain’s growth (97.6% ± 0.5%), while the use of 0.5% and 1.0% of neem oil showed lower antifungal activity, 40.2% ± 3.1 and 64.7% ± 1.1, respectively. There was a complete inhibition of OTA production with 0.1% and 0.3% neem oil in the four strains isolated in the laboratory from grapes. The present study shows that neem essential oil can be further evaluated as an auxiliary method for the reduction of mycelial growth and OTA production. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; essential oils; ecophysiology mycotoxins; essential oils; ecophysiology
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Rodrigues, M.P.; Astoreca, A.L.; Oliveira, Á.A.; Salvato, L.A.; Biscoto, G.L.; Keller, L.A.M.; Rosa, C.A.R.; Cavaglieri, L.R.; Azevedo, M.I.; Keller, K.M. In Vitro Activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Oil on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Aspergillus carbonarius Isolates. Toxins 2019, 11, 579.

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