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Toxins 2019, 11(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11010027

Overview of Fungi and Mycotoxin Contamination in Capsicum Pepper and in Its Derivatives

1
Scientific and Technological Bioresource Nucleus-BIOREN-UFRO, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco 4811-230, Chile
2
Department of Sustainable Crop Production, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Cattolica del S. Cuore di Piacenza, via Emilia Parmense 84, 2910010 Piacenza, Italy
3
CEB-Centre of Biological Engineering, Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM), University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
4
Applied Mycology Group, Environment and AgriFood Theme, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedford MK43 0AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

Capsicum products are widely commercialised and consumed worldwide. These substrates present unusual nutritional characteristics for microbial growth. Despite this, the presence of spoilage fungi and the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in the pepper production chain have been commonly detected. The main aim of this work was to review the critical control points, with a focus on mycotoxin contamination, during the production, storage and distribution of Capsicum products from a safety perspective; outlining the important role of ecophysiological factors in stimulating or inhibiting mycotoxin biosynthesis in these food commodities. Moreover, the human health risks caused by the ingestion of peppers contaminated with mycotoxins were also reviewed. Overall, Capsicum and its derivative-products are highly susceptible to contamination by mycotoxins. Pepper crop production and further transportation, processing and storage are crucial for production of safe food. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; chilli; mycotoxins; ochratoxin A; pepper; spoilage fungi aflatoxins; chilli; mycotoxins; ochratoxin A; pepper; spoilage fungi
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Costa, J.; Rodríguez, R.; Garcia-Cela, E.; Medina, A.; Magan, N.; Lima, N.; Battilani, P.; Santos, C. Overview of Fungi and Mycotoxin Contamination in Capsicum Pepper and in Its Derivatives. Toxins 2019, 11, 27.

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