Next Article in Journal
Subtype Specificity of β-Toxin Tf1a from Tityus fasciolatus in Voltage Gated Sodium Channels
Previous Article in Journal
Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Toxin PnTx2-1 (δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a) Is a Modulator of Sodium Channel Gating
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(9), 338;

Butylbenzene and tert-Butylbenzene—Sorption on Sand Particles and Biodegradation in the Presence of Plant Natural Surfactants

Institute of Chemical Technology and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Berdychowo 4, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Plant Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1630 KB, uploaded 22 August 2018]   |  


The effects of hydrocarbons sorption on sand and saponins presence in the system on butylbenzene and tert-butylbenzene biological degradation was investigated. Additionally, the impact of saponins-containing plant extracts on environmental microorganisms was studied. Results of cell surface property measurements in samples with saponins only revealed changes in cell surface hydrophobicity, electrokinetic potential and membrane permeability when compared to corresponding values for glucose-grown microbes. Subsequently, in sorption experiments, the hydrocarbon adsorption kinetics in bacteria-free samples were better explained with the pseudo-second order kinetic model as compared to the pseudo-first order and intraparticular diffusion models. Moreover, the equilibrium data fitted better to the Freundlich isotherm for both benzene derivatives. In the samples combining hydrocarbons sorption and biological degradation in the presence of saponins, alkane-substituted hydrocarbons removal was accelerated from 40% to 90% after 14 days and the best surfactant in this aspect was S. officinalis extract. View Full-Text
Keywords: surfactants; butylbenzene; tert-butylbenzene; biodegradation; sand surfactants; butylbenzene; tert-butylbenzene; biodegradation; sand

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zdarta, A.; Pacholak, A.; Galikowska, M.; Smułek, W.; Kaczorek, E. Butylbenzene and tert-Butylbenzene—Sorption on Sand Particles and Biodegradation in the Presence of Plant Natural Surfactants. Toxins 2018, 10, 338.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top