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Toxins 2018, 10(7), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070294

Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle Feeds from the Gauteng Province of South Africa: A Pilot Study Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS

1
Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein Campus, Gauteng 2028, South Africa
2
Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability Research Unit, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Roodepoort, Johannesburg 1710, South Africa
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Abstract

The indispensable nature of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in agricultural systems is of worldwide concern, hence the need for surveillance studies to preserve public health. Thirteen dairy farms were surveyed and 40 dairy feeds of varying nature collected and analyzed for mycotoxins. Estimated levels of aflatoxins (AFs), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), citrinin (CIT), zearalenone (ZEN), α-zearalenol (α-ZEL), β-zearalenol (β-ZEL), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3- and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (ADONs), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), and beauvericin (BEA) were established using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Highest frequencies (40/40) were found for AFG2 (range: <LOQ—116.1 ppb), α-ZEL (range: 0.98–13.24 ppb), and β-ZEL (range: 0.73–4.71 ppb), followed by AFB2 at 37/40 (range: <LOQ—23.88 ppb), BEA at 36/40 (range: <LOQ—55.99 ppb), HT-2 at 35/40 (range: <LOQ—312.95 ppb), and FB1 at 34/40 (range: <LOQ—1389.62 ppb). Apart from samples exceeding regulatory limits for total AFs in dairy feeds due to the high amounts of AFG2 and AFB2, levels of other mycotoxins were regarded as safe for dairy production in South Africa. This is the first-time the natural occurrence of the cold climate HT-2 in South African feeds was documented. Persistent co-occurrence of multiple mycotoxins across samples, however, may elicit synergistic and/or additive effects in hosts, hence raising concerns about their impacts and how such interactions may affect the dairy livestock sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; dairy feeds; UHPLC-MS/MS; South Africa mycotoxins; dairy feeds; UHPLC-MS/MS; South Africa
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Changwa, R.; Abia, W.; Msagati, T.; Nyoni, H.; Ndleve, K.; Njobeh, P. Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle Feeds from the Gauteng Province of South Africa: A Pilot Study Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Toxins 2018, 10, 294.

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