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Toxins 2018, 10(7), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070259

Effect of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes Snake Venom on the Human Cytokine Network

1
Department of Fundamental Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu Mures, Gheorghe Marinescu Street No. 38, 540139 Tirgu Mures, Romania
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Pecs, Rokus Street No. 2, 7624 Pecs, Hungary
3
Szentagothai Research Center, University of Pecs, Ifjusag Street No. 20, 7624 Pecs, Hungary
4
Department of Specialty Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Tirgu Mures, Gheorghe Marinescu Street No. 38, 540139 Tirgu Mures, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 21 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Local inflammation is a well-known symptom of envenomation by snakes of the family Viperidae, attributed primarily to the phospholipase A2s, metalloproteinases and L-amino acid oxidases contained in their venom. The inflammatory effect of snake venoms has been associated with a marked increase of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. To determine the impact of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes snake venom on the expression of inflammation-related genes, we incubated human U937 monocyte cells with dilutions of snake venom. Gene expression was quantified for 28 different genes using a TaqMan® Array Human Cytokine Network 96-well Plate in a RT-qPCR system. Our results have demonstrated that 1.0 μg/mL Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom solution induces a notable change in the expression of several cytokine network genes. Among the upregulated genes, there were several that encode interleukins, interferons, and tumor necrosis factors. We further report the downregulation of three interleukin-related genes. Our findings come as supportive information for the known complex effect of snake venoms on the human cytokine network. It also provides relevant new information regarding the expression of genes that have not been previously associated with the effect of snake venoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: snake venoms; Vipera ammodytes; inflammation-related genes; inflammatory mediators; cytokines; RT-qPCR snake venoms; Vipera ammodytes; inflammation-related genes; inflammatory mediators; cytokines; RT-qPCR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Boda, F.; Banfai, K.; Garai, K.; Curticapean, A.; Berta, L.; Sipos, E.; Kvell, K. Effect of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes Snake Venom on the Human Cytokine Network. Toxins 2018, 10, 259.

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