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Toxins 2018, 10(6), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10060243

Evaluation of Mycotoxin Residues on Ready-to-Eat Food by Chromatographic Methods Coupled to Mass Spectrometry in Tandem

1
Faculty of Agricultural Science, National University of Asunción, San Lorenzo 2160, Paraguay
2
Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Avenue Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Mycotoxin Exposure: Emerging Risks to Human Health)
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Abstract

Simultaneous determination of twenty-seven mycotoxins in ready-to-eat food samples using “Quick Easy Cheap Rough and Safe” (QuEChERS) extraction and chromatographic methods coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem is described in this study. Mycotoxins included in this survey were aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2), enniatins (A, A1, B, B1), beauvericin (BEA), fumonisins (FB1, FB2), sterigmatocystin (STG), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), fusarenon-X (FUS-X), zearalenone (ZEA), α-zearalanol (αZAL), β-zearalenone (βZAL), α-zearalenol (αZOL), β-zearalenol (βzol), T2, and HT-2 toxin. The method showed satisfactory extraction results with recoveries ranging from 63 to 119% for the different food matrix samples. Limits of detection (LODS) and quantification (LOQs) were between 0.15–1.5 µg/kg and 0.5–5 µg/kg, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 25 ready-to-eat food samples. Results showed presence of deoxynivalenol at 36% of samples (2.61–21.59 µg/kg), enniatin B at 20% of samples (9.83–86.32 µg/kg), HT-2 toxin at 16% of samples (9.06–34.43 µg/kg), and aflatoxin G2 at 4% of samples (2.84 µg/kg). Mycotoxins were detected mainly in ready-to-eat food samples prepared with cereals, vegetables, and legumes, even at levels below those often obtained from raw food. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; ready-to-eat food; GC-MS/MS; LC-MS/MS; Valencia mycotoxins; ready-to-eat food; GC-MS/MS; LC-MS/MS; Valencia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Carballo, D.; Font, G.; Ferrer, E.; Berrada, H. Evaluation of Mycotoxin Residues on Ready-to-Eat Food by Chromatographic Methods Coupled to Mass Spectrometry in Tandem. Toxins 2018, 10, 243.

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