Next Article in Journal
Diel Variations in Cell Abundance and Trophic Transfer of Diarrheic Toxins during a Massive Dinophysis Bloom in Southern Brazil
Next Article in Special Issue
Light Chain Diversity among the Botulinum Neurotoxins
Previous Article in Journal
Fumonisin-Exposure Impairs Age-Related Ecological Succession of Bacterial Species in Weaned Pig Gut Microbiota
Previous Article in Special Issue
Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype FA, Also Known as Serotype H
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2018, 10(6), 231;

Engineering of Botulinum Neurotoxins for Biomedical Applications

The Division of Molecular and Translational Sciences, United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel BoNTs and Toxin Engineering)
Full-Text   |   PDF [400 KB, uploaded 12 June 2018]


Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) have been used as therapeutic agents in the clinical treatment of a wide array of neuromuscular and autonomic neuronal transmission disorders. These toxins contain three functional domains that mediate highly specific neuronal cell binding, internalization and cytosolic delivery of proteolytic enzymes that cleave proteins integral to the exocytosis of neurotransmitters. The exceptional cellular specificity, potency and persistence within the neuron that make BoNTs such effective toxins, also make them attractive models for derivatives that have modified properties that could potentially expand their therapeutic repertoire. Advances in molecular biology techniques and rapid DNA synthesis have allowed a wide variety of novel BoNTs with alternative functions to be assessed as potential new classes of therapeutic drugs. This review examines how the BoNTs have been engineered in an effort to produce new classes of therapeutic molecules to address a wide array of disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum toxin; engineered toxin; recombinant botulinum toxin; drug delivery; chimeric BoNT; alternative binding domain; re-targeted BoNT botulinum toxin; engineered toxin; recombinant botulinum toxin; drug delivery; chimeric BoNT; alternative binding domain; re-targeted BoNT
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Webb, R.P. Engineering of Botulinum Neurotoxins for Biomedical Applications. Toxins 2018, 10, 231.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top