Next Article in Journal
Effects of High Levels of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on Growth Performance, and Hematological and Immunological Parameters in Pigs
Next Article in Special Issue
Long-Term Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Feed and Feed Raw Materials with a Special Focus on South Korea
Previous Article in Journal
Fungal Cytochrome P450s and the P450 Complement (CYPome) of Fusarium graminearum
Previous Article in Special Issue
Tolerance and Excretion of the Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, and Ochratoxin A by Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(3), 113;

Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China

Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
The Cooperative Innovation Center for Sustainable Pig Production, Wuhan 430070, China
Jiangsu Aomai Bio-Technology Co., Ltd., Nanjing 211226, China
Sichuan Green Food Development Center, Chengdu 610041, China
Hubei Gosign Bio-Feed Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430040, China
Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G2W1, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
PDF [265 KB, uploaded 7 March 2018]


The objective of this study was to investigate the individual and combined contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) in feedstuffs from different Provinces of China between 2016 and 2017. A total of 1569 samples, including 742 feed ingredients and 827 complete pig feed samples, were collected from various regions of China for mycotoxins analysis. The results showed that individual occurrence rates of AFB1, ZEN, and DON were more than 83.3%, 88%, and 74.5%, respectively, in all the tested samples. DON was the most prevalent contaminant, followed by ZEN and AFB1, with the average concentrations ranging from 450.0–4381.5 μg/kg, 2.3–729.2 μg/kg, and 1.3–10.0 μg/kg, respectively. Notable, 38.2%, 10.8%, and 0.6% of complete pig feeds were contaminated with DON, ZEN, and AFB1 over China’s regulatory limits, respectively. Moreover, over 75.0% analyzed samples were co-contaminated with two or three mycotoxins. In conclusion, the current study revealed that the feedstuffs in China were severely contaminated with DON, followed by ZEN and AFB1 during the past two years. These findings highlight the importance of monitoring mycotoxins in livestock feed and implementing feed management and bioremediation strategies to reduce mycotoxin exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; feedstuffs; China aflatoxin B1; zearalenone; deoxynivalenol; feedstuffs; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, R.; Zhang, L.; Liu, M.; Su, Y.-T.; Xie, W.-M.; Zhang, N.-Y.; Dai, J.-F.; Wang, Y.; Rajput, S.A.; Qi, D.-S.; Karrow, N.A.; Sun, L.-H. Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China. Toxins 2018, 10, 113.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top