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Toxins 2018, 10(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10030110

Changes in Phenylpropanoid and Trichothecene Production by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto via Exposure to Flavonoids

1
Department of Microbiology and Mycology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 1A, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Chemistry, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 75, 60-637 Poznan, Poland
3
Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Production, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Łódzki 3, 10-727 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 March 2018 / Published: 5 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Toxins: Pathogenesis and Novel Control Measures)
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Abstract

Flavonoids are a group of hydroxylated polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Biosynthesis of these compounds involves type III PKSs, whose presence has been recently predicted in some fungal species through genome sequencing efforts. In this study, for the first time it was found that Fusaria produce flavonoids on solid YES medium. Naringenin, as the central precursor of all flavonoids, was produced at highest quantities, followed by quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin and luteolin. In plants, flavonoids are involved in the protection of cereals to a wide range of stresses, including host defense against Fusaria. Under in vitro conditions, strains of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum sensu stricto were incubated at levels of flavonoids close to amounts produced by cereals in response to fungal infection. The amounts of exogenous naringenin, apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol and quercetin were reduced and converted by fungi to the other flavonoid derivatives. Treatment of fungi with naringenin derivatives led to the inhibition of naringenin production. Correspondingly, the production of fungal-derived phenolic acids decreased in flavonoid treated samples, although this effect appeared to be dependent on the strain, flavonoid molecule and its concentration. Fusaria showed high variability in trichothecene production in response to flavonoids. With emphasis on quercetin, mycotoxin accumulation in the media was significantly decreased by luteolin, kaempferol, naringenin and apigenin. However, in some cases, apigenin led to the increase of mycotoxin content in the media. Gene expression experiments of Tri genes responsible for trichothecene biosynthesis (Tri4, Tri5 and Tri10) proved that the inhibition of mycotoxin production by flavonoids occurred at the transcriptional level. However, the changes in Tri transcript levels were not significant in most apigenin and all kaempferol-treated cultures. In this study, a link was established between antioxidant and antiradical properties of flavonoids and their effects on fungi. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium; flavonoids; naringenin; quercetin; kaempferol; apigenin; luteolin; trichothecenes Fusarium; flavonoids; naringenin; quercetin; kaempferol; apigenin; luteolin; trichothecenes
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Bilska, K.; Stuper-Szablewska, K.; Kulik, T.; Buśko, M.; Załuski, D.; Jurczak, S.; Perkowski, J. Changes in Phenylpropanoid and Trichothecene Production by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum Sensu Stricto via Exposure to Flavonoids. Toxins 2018, 10, 110.

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