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Toxins 2018, 10(6), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10060215

Effect of Biliary Drainage on the Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of Amanita exitialis in Beagles

1
National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
2
Institute of Public Health and Management, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China
3
Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Traceability Technologies for Food Poisoning, Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100013, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Toxins: Pathogenesis and Novel Control Measures)
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Abstract

Amatoxin poisoning induces delayed-onset acute liver failure, which are responsible for more than 90% of deaths in mushroom poisoning. It has been postulated from animal and human studies that biliary drainage interrupting enterohepatic amatoxin circulation may affect amatoxin poisoning. Dogs were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. In 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg with biliary drainage groups, after accepting bile drainage operation, beagles were fed Amanita exitialis powder (20 or 60 mg/kg) in starch capsules. In control and bile drainage groups, the beagle dogs were fed with empty capsules. They were assessed for toxicity signs, biochemical and pathological changes, and peptide toxins in plasma, urine and bile. The data were directly compared with those from our published studies on Amanita exitialis-exposed beagles without biliary drainage. Amatoxins were rapidly absorbed and eliminated from plasma after Amanita exitialis ingestion. Amatoxins in 0–1-day urine accounted for more than 90% of the total urine excretion, and amatoxins in bile accounted for less than 20% of the total urine and bile excretion. The dogs with biliary drainage showed less severe toxicity signs and biochemical and pathological changes and much lower internal exposure than dogs without biliary drainage. Biliary drainage caused a more than 70% reduction in intestinal amatoxin absorption and could reduce amatoxin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. View Full-Text
Keywords: Amanita exitialis; amatoxins; beagles; bile drainage; urine Amanita exitialis; amatoxins; beagles; bile drainage; urine
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Sun, J.; Zhang, Y.-T.; Niu, Y.-M.; Li, H.-J.; Yin, Y.; Zhang, Y.-Z.; Ma, P.-B.; Zhou, J.; Lu, J.-J.; Zhang, H.-S.; Sun, C.-Y. Effect of Biliary Drainage on the Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of Amanita exitialis in Beagles. Toxins 2018, 10, 215.

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