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Toxins 2018, 10(12), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10120486

Parawixin2 Protects Hippocampal Cells in Experimental Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

1
Neurobiology and Venoms Laboratory (LNP), Department of Biology, College of Philosophy, Sciences and Literature of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, 14040-901 São Paulo, Brazil
2
Neuroscience Behavioral Institute (INEC), Av. do Café, 2450, Ribeirão Preto, 14050-220 São Paulo, Brazil
3
Laboratory of Neuropharmacology, Department of Physiological Sciences, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Brasília, DF 70910-900 Brasília, Brazil
4
Department of Biotechnology/School of Medicine, University of Ribeirão Preto, Av. Costábile Romano, 2201, Ribeirão Preto, 14096-900 São Paulo, Brazil
5
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N. 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
6
NPPNS, Department of Physics and Chemistry, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, Av. do Cafe s/n, Ribeirão Preto, 14040-903 São Paulo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 27 October 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract

Epilepsy is considered as one of the major disabling neuropathologies. Almost one third of adult patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) do not respond to current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Additionally, most AEDs do not have neuroprotective effects against the inherent neurodegenerative process underlying the hippocampal sclerosis on TLE. Dysfunctions in the GABAergic neurotransmission may contribute not only to the onset of epileptic activity but also constitute an important system for therapeutic approaches. Therefore, molecules that enhance GABA inhibitory effects could open novel avenues for the understanding of epileptic plasticity and for drug development. Parawixin2, a compound isolated from Parawixia bistriata spider venom, inhibits both GABA and glycine uptake and has an anticonvulsant effect against a wide range of chemoconvulsants. The neuroprotective potential of Parawixin2 was analyzed in a model of TLE induced by a long-lasting Status Epilepticus (SE), and its efficiency was compared to well-known neuroprotective drugs, such as riluzole and nipecotic acid. Neuroprotection was assessed through histological markers for cell density (Nissl), astrocytic reactivity (GFAP) and cell death labeling (TUNEL), which were performed 24 h and 72 h after SE. Parawixin2 treatment resulted in neuroprotective effects in a dose dependent manner at 24 h and 72 h after SE, as well as reduced reactive astrocytes and apoptotic cell death. Based on these findings, Parawixin2 has a great potential to be used as a tool for neuroscience research and as a probe to the development of novel GABAergic neuroprotective agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: spider toxin; Parawixia bistriata; Parawixin2; GABA uptake inhibitor; temporal lobe epilepsy; pilocarpine model; hippocampal lost cells; neuroprotection spider toxin; Parawixia bistriata; Parawixin2; GABA uptake inhibitor; temporal lobe epilepsy; pilocarpine model; hippocampal lost cells; neuroprotection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liberato, J.L.; Godoy, L.D.; Cunha, A.O.S.; Mortari, M.R.; de Oliveira Beleboni, R.; Fontana, A.C.K.; Lopes, N.P.; dos Santos, W.F. Parawixin2 Protects Hippocampal Cells in Experimental Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Toxins 2018, 10, 486.

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