Next Article in Journal
Assessing the Aflatoxin B1 Adsorption Capacity between Biosorbents Using an In Vitro Multicompartmental Model Simulating the Dynamic Conditions in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Poultry
Next Article in Special Issue
The Fever Tree: from Malaria to Neurological Diseases
Previous Article in Journal
Modified Palygorskite Improves Immunity, Antioxidant Ability, Intestinal Morphology, and Barrier Function in Broiler Chickens Fed Naturally Contaminated Diet with Permitted Feed Concentrations of Fusarium Mycotoxins
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bacterial Superantigen Toxins, CD28, and Drug Development
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2018, 10(11), 483;

Pharmacokinetics of Toxin-Derived Peptide Drugs

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 20 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Toxins to Drugs)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2596 KB, uploaded 20 November 2018]   |  
  |   Review Reports


Toxins and venoms produced by different organisms contain peptides that have evolved to have highly selective and potent pharmacological effects on specific targets for protection and predation. Several toxin-derived peptides have become drugs and are used for the management of diabetes, hypertension, chronic pain, and other medical conditions. Despite the similarity in their composition (amino acids as the building blocks), toxin-derived peptide drugs have very profound differences in their structure and conformation, in their physicochemical properties (that affect solubility, stability, etc.), and subsequently in their pharmacokinetics (the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination following their administration to patients). This review summarizes and critically analyzes the pharmacokinetic properties of toxin-derived peptide drugs: (1) the relationship between the chemical structure, physicochemical properties, and the pharmacokinetics of the specific drugs, (2) the major pharmacokinetic properties and parameters of these drugs, and (3) the major pharmacokinetic variability factors of the individual drugs. The structural properties of toxin-derived peptides affect their pharmacokinetics and pose some limitations on their clinical use. These properties should be taken into account during the development of new toxin-derived peptide drugs, and for the efficient and safe use of the clinically approved drugs from this group in the individual patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxin-derived peptide drugs; physicochemical properties; pharmacokinetics; pharmacokinetic parameters; pharmacokinetic variability factors; dose adjustment toxin-derived peptide drugs; physicochemical properties; pharmacokinetics; pharmacokinetic parameters; pharmacokinetic variability factors; dose adjustment

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Stepensky, D. Pharmacokinetics of Toxin-Derived Peptide Drugs. Toxins 2018, 10, 483.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top