Next Article in Journal
First Report on the Occurrence of Tetrodotoxins in Bivalve Mollusks in The Netherlands
Previous Article in Journal
AbobotulinumtoxinA: A New Therapy for Hip Osteoarthritis. A Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Multicenter Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Novel Adsorbent Magnetic Graphene Oxide Modified with Chitosan for the Simultaneous Reduction of Mycotoxins
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(11), 449;

The Protective Role of Bacillus velezensis A2 on the Biochemical and Hepatic Toxicity of Zearalenone in Mice

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis of Liaoning Province, College of Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
These authors contributed equally to this study.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 28 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [3164 KB, uploaded 31 October 2018]   |  


Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogen-like mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that seriously compromises the safety of animal and human health. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the protective effect of Bacillus velezensis A2 against biochemical and pathological changes induced by zearalenone in mice. Kunming mice (n = 40; 25 ± 2 g) were allotted to four treatment groups: a control group (basic feed); a ZEN group (basic feed with a ZEN dose of 60 mg/kg); an A2 strain fermented feed group (150 g of feed mixed with 150 mL of sterile distilled water and inoculated with 5 mL of phosphate buffer salt (PBS) resuspended A2 strain); and an A2 strain fermented ZEN-contaminated feed group. (A2 strain group 150 mL pure bacterial distilled water system mixed with 150 g ZEN-contaminated feed.) Our results showed that the Bacillus velezensis A2 strain can completely degrade the ZEN-contaminated feed within 5 days. (The concentration of ZEN in fermentation was 60 μg/mL.) After the mice fed for 28 days, compared with the control group, the activities of AST and ALT were increased, the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) were decreased, and the amount of creatinine (CRE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (UA), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the ZEN group were increased in the mice serum (p < 0.05; p < 0.01). However, compared with the ZEN group, these biochemical levels were reversed in the A2 strain fermented feed group and in the A2 strain fermented ZEN-contaminated feed group (p < 0.05; p < 0.01). Furthermore, histopathological analysis only showed pathological changes of the mice liver in the ZEN group. The results showed that Bacillus velezensis A2 as additive could effectively remove ZEN contamination in the feed and protect the mice against the toxic damage of ZEN. In conclusion, Bacillus velezensis A2 has great potential use as a microbial feed additive to detoxify the toxicity of zearalenone in production practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bacillus velezensis A2; zearalenone (ZEN); feed detoxification; serum enzyme; oxidative damage Bacillus velezensis A2; zearalenone (ZEN); feed detoxification; serum enzyme; oxidative damage

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, N.; Li, P.; Wang, M.; Chen, S.; Huang, S.; Long, M.; Yang, S.; He, J. The Protective Role of Bacillus velezensis A2 on the Biochemical and Hepatic Toxicity of Zearalenone in Mice. Toxins 2018, 10, 449.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top