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Toxins 2018, 10(11), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110440

iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Changes in Metabolite Biosynthesis in Monascus purpureus in Response to a Low-Frequency Magnetic Field

1
College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
2
College of Life Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Background: Low-frequency magnetic fields (LF-MFs) dampen the citrinin output by Monascus purpureus in fermentations. The influence of LF-MFs on biosynthesis by M. purpureus was evaluated at the protein level. Methods: Cultures were treated with a 1.6-mT MF from day 0 to day 2 of incubation, and secondary metabolite production was evaluated on the day 12 of incubation. All proteins were extracted from M. purpureus mycelia and subjected to isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling and subsequent liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis on day 6 of fermentation. Results: There was no difference in biomass between the treated samples and the control. Citrinin production was 46.7% lower, and the yields of monacolin K and yellow, orange, and red pigment were 29.3%, 31.3%, 41.7%, and 40.3% higher, respectively, in the exposed samples compared to the control. Protein expression in M. purpureus under LF-MF treatment was quantified using iTRAQ technology. Of 2031 detected proteins, 205 were differentially expressed. The differentially-expressed proteins were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation and statistical analysis, which revealed that they mainly refer to biological metabolism, translation, antioxidant, transport and defense pathways. Among all the tagged proteins, emphasis was placed on the analysis of those involved in the synthesis of citrinin, pigment and monacolin K was emphasized. Conclusions: LF-MFs affected Monascus secondary metabolism at the protein level, and aggregate data for all the protein profiles in LF-MF-treated Monascus was obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: LF-MF; Monascus purpureus; protein expression; citrinin; pigment; monacolin K LF-MF; Monascus purpureus; protein expression; citrinin; pigment; monacolin K
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Zhang, J.; Liu, Y.; Li, L.; Gao, M. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Changes in Metabolite Biosynthesis in Monascus purpureus in Response to a Low-Frequency Magnetic Field. Toxins 2018, 10, 440.

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