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Toxins 2018, 10(11), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110436

Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Effects on the Metabolomic and Cytokinomic Profiling of a Hepatoblastoma Cell Line

1
Unità di Farmacologia e Tossicologia—Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria e Produzioni Animali, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, 80138 Napoli, Italy
2
Unità di Farmacologia Sperimentale, Istituto Nazionale Tumori-IRCCS-Fondazione G. Pascale, 80131 Napoli, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 26 October 2018 / Accepted: 26 October 2018 / Published: 28 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
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Abstract

Hepatoblastoma incidence has been associated with different environmental factors even if no data are reported about a correlation between aflatoxin exposure and hepatoblastoma initiation. Considering that hepatoblastoma develops in infants and children and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) hydroxylated metabolite, can be present in mothers’ milk and in marketed milk products, in this study we decided to test the effects of AFM1 on a hepatoblastoma cell line (HepG2). Firstly, we evaluated the effects of AFM1 on the cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, and metabolomic and cytokinomic profile of HepG2 cells after treatment. AFM1 induced: (1) a decrease of HepG2 cell viability, reaching IC50 at 9 µM; (2) the blocking of the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase; (3) the decrease of formiate levels and incremented level of some amino acids and metabolites in HepG2 cells after treatment; and (4) the increase of the concentration of three pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, and the decrease of the anti-inflammatory interleukin, IL-4. Our results show that AFM1 inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells, inducing both a modulation of the lipidic, glycolytic, and amino acid metabolism and an increase of the inflammatory status of these cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin M1; metabolome; cytokinome; hepatoblastoma aflatoxin M1; metabolome; cytokinome; hepatoblastoma
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Marchese, S.; Sorice, A.; Ariano, A.; Florio, S.; Budillon, A.; Costantini, S.; Severino, L. Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Effects on the Metabolomic and Cytokinomic Profiling of a Hepatoblastoma Cell Line. Toxins 2018, 10, 436.

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