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Toxins 2018, 10(9), 363;

Removal of Microcystin-LR by a Novel Native Effective Bacterial Community Designated as YFMCD4 Isolated from Lake Taihu

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, 110 Xiangya Road, Changsha 410078, China
Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
Key laboratory of Hunan Province for Water Environment and Agriculture Product Safety, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Key Laboratory of Biometallurgy, Ministry of Education, School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 8 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Freshwater HABs and Health in a Changing World)
PDF [3468 KB, uploaded 8 September 2018]


Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most toxic and frequently detected monocyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria, which poses a great threat to the natural ecosystem and public health. It is very important to seek environment-friendly and cost-efficient methods to remove MC-LR in water. In this study, the MC-degrading capacities of a novel indigenous bacterial community designated as YFMCD4 and the influence of environmental factors including various temperatures, MC concentrations and pH on the MC-degrading activities were investigated utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, the MC-degrading mechanism of YFMCD4 was also studied using HPLC coupled with a mass spectrometry equipped with electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-MS). The data showed MC-LR was completely removed at the maximum rate of 0.5 µg/(mL·h) under the optimal condition by YFMCD4. Two pure bacterial strains Alcaligenes faecalis and Stenotrophomonas acidaminiohila were isolated from YFMCD4 degraded MC-LR at a slower rate. The MC-degrading rates of YFMCD4 were significantly affected by different temperatures, pH and MC-LR concentrations. Two intermediates of a tetrapeptide and Adda appeared in the degradation process. These results illustrate that the novel YFMCD4 is one of the highest effective MC-degrading bacterial community, which can completely remove MC-LR and possesses a significant potential to treat water bodies contaminated by MC-LR. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystin-LR (MC-LR); remove; Adda; bacterial community microcystin-LR (MC-LR); remove; Adda; bacterial community

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yang, F.; Guo, J.; Huang, F.; Massey, I.Y.; Huang, R.; Li, Y.; Wen, C.; Ding, P.; Zeng, W.; Liang, G. Removal of Microcystin-LR by a Novel Native Effective Bacterial Community Designated as YFMCD4 Isolated from Lake Taihu. Toxins 2018, 10, 363.

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