Next Article in Journal
Current Status and Future Opportunities of Omics Tools in Mycotoxin Research
Next Article in Special Issue
Carbon Quantum Dots Encapsulated Molecularly Imprinted Fluorescence Quenching Particles for Sensitive Detection of Zearalenone in Corn Sample
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Application of a Quantitative PCR Assay to Assess Genotype Dynamics and Anatoxin Content in Microcoleus autumnalis-Dominated Mats
Previous Article in Special Issue
Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube for One-Step Cleanup of 21 Mycotoxins in Corn and Wheat Prior to Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(11), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110432

Multi-Occurrence of Twenty Mycotoxinsin Pasta and a Risk Assessment in the Moroccan Population

1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohammed V Agdal, Avenue Ibn Batouta, Rabat 10010, Morocco
2
Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of València, Vicent Andrés Estelléss/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
3
Team of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnologies, Laboratory of Marine Biotechnologies and Environment (BIOMARE), Faculty of Sciences, Chouaïb Doukkali University, El Jadida 24000, Morocco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methods for Mycotoxins Detection)
Full-Text   |   PDF [628 KB, uploaded 26 October 2018]   |  

Abstract

In the present study, the multi-occurrence of twenty (20) mycotoxins in pasta samples consumed in Morocco was assessed. For this, a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap Effective, Rugged, and Safe method was validated. The mycotoxins studied were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) and gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The validated method was applied to one hundred and six (n = 106) pasta samples purchased from several areas in the country. The analytical results showed that 99 out of 106 total samples (93.4%) were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin. Nine mycotoxins (Aflatoxin B1, Enniatin B, Enniatin B1, Enniatin A1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, 3-Acetyl-Deoxynivalenol, T-2, and HT-2 toxins) were present in the pasta samples. Enniatin B and Enniatin B1 were the predominant mycotoxins. The Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, HT-2, and T-2 toxins were present in 51.8%, 43.5%, 34.9%, and 16% of samples, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in only 2 samples. Risk exposure assessment concluded that mycotoxin levels found in pasta do not pose a significant human health risk for the Moroccan population. This is the first paper drafted on the multi-occurrence of mycotoxins in pasta from this country. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; occurrence; QuEChERS; pasta; risk assessment mycotoxins; occurrence; QuEChERS; pasta; risk assessment
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bouafifssa, Y.; Manyes, L.; Rahouti, M.; Mañes, J.; Berrada, H.; Zinedine, A.; Fernández-Franzón, M. Multi-Occurrence of Twenty Mycotoxinsin Pasta and a Risk Assessment in the Moroccan Population. Toxins 2018, 10, 432.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top