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Toxins 2018, 10(11), 423; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110423

The Acute Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin and Tetrodotoxin–Saxitoxin Mixtures to Mice by Various Routes of Administration

1
AgResearch Limited, Ruakura Research Centre, Private Bag 3123, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
2
Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Marine Biotoxins)
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Abstract

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin associated with human poisonings through the consumption of pufferfish. More recently, TTX has been identified in bivalve molluscs from diverse geographical environments, including Europe, and is therefore recognised as an emerging threat to food safety. A recent scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain recognised the need for further data on the acute oral toxicity of TTX and suggested that, since saxitoxin (STX) and TTX had similar modes of action, it was possible that their toxicities were additive so could perhaps be combined to yield one health-based guideline value. The present study determined the toxicity of TTX by various routes of administration. The testing of three different mixtures of STX and TTX and comparing the experimentally determined values to those predicted on the basis of additive toxicity demonstrated that the toxicities of STX and TTX are additive. This illustrates that it is appropriate to treat TTX as a member of the paralytic shellfish group of toxins. Since the toxicity of TTX was found to be the same as STX by feeding, a molar toxicity equivalence factor of 1.0 for TTX can be applied. View Full-Text
Keywords: paralytic shellfish toxins; acute toxicity; oral toxicity; tetrodotoxin; saxitoxin; toxicity equivalence factor paralytic shellfish toxins; acute toxicity; oral toxicity; tetrodotoxin; saxitoxin; toxicity equivalence factor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Finch, S.C.; Boundy, M.J.; Harwood, D.T. The Acute Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin and Tetrodotoxin–Saxitoxin Mixtures to Mice by Various Routes of Administration. Toxins 2018, 10, 423.

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