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Toxins 2018, 10(10), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10100399

Dinophysis acuta in Scottish Coastal Waters and Its Influence on Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin Profiles

1
Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll PA37 1QA, UK
2
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, The Nothe, Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK
3
Marine Scotland Science, Marine Laboratory, 375 Victoria Road, Aberdeen AB11 9DB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 August 2018 / Revised: 20 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 28 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts)
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Abstract

Diarrhetic shellfish toxins produced by the dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis are a major problem for the shellfish industry worldwide. Separate species of the genus have been associated with the production of different analogues of the okadaic acid group of toxins. To evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of Dinophysis species and toxins in the important shellfish-harvesting region of the Scottish west coast, we analysed data collected from 1996 to 2017 in two contrasting locations: Loch Ewe and the Clyde Sea. Seasonal studies were also undertaken, in Loch Ewe in both 2001 and 2002, and in the Clyde in 2015. Dinophysis acuminata was present throughout the growing season during every year of the study, with blooms typically occurring between May and September at both locations. The appearance of D. acuta was interannually sporadic and, when present, was most abundant in the late summer and autumn. The Clyde field study in 2015 indicated the importance of a temperature front in the formation of a D. acuta bloom. A shift in toxin profiles of common mussels (Mytilus edulis) tested during regulatory monitoring was evident, with a proportional decrease in okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and an increase in dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) occurring when D. acuta became dominant. Routine enumeration of Dinophysis to species level could provide early warning of potential contamination of shellfish with DTX2 and thus determine the choice of the most suitable kit for effective end-product testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dinophysis; HAB monitoring; DSP toxins; aquaculture; shellfish toxicity; human health; time-series; seasonality; Scotland Dinophysis; HAB monitoring; DSP toxins; aquaculture; shellfish toxicity; human health; time-series; seasonality; Scotland
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Swan, S.C.; Turner, A.D.; Bresnan, E.; Whyte, C.; Paterson, R.F.; McNeill, S.; Mitchell, E.; Davidson, K. Dinophysis acuta in Scottish Coastal Waters and Its Influence on Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin Profiles. Toxins 2018, 10, 399.

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