Individual and Combined Effects of Fumonisin B1, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Hepatic and Renal Membrane Lipid Integrity of Rats
Institute of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Oncology, Kaposvár University, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
“MTA-KE Mycotoxins in the Food Chain” Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Kaposvár University, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
Research Institute for Animal Breeding, Nutrition and Meat Science, National Agricultural Research Center, 2053 Herceghalom, Hungary
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Szent István University, 2013 Gödöllő, Hungary
Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Kaposvár University, 7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10010004
Received: 14 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
(1) Background and (2) Methods: A 14-day in vivo, multitoxic (pure mycotoxins) rat experiment was conducted with zearalenone (ZEA; 15 μg/animal/day), deoxynivalenol (DON; 30 μg/animal/day) and fumonisin B1 (FB1; 150 μg/animal/day), as individual mycotoxins, binary (FD, FZ and DZ) and ternary combinations (FDZ), via gavage in 1 mL water boluses. (3) Results: Body weight was unaffected, while liver (ZEA↑ vs. DON) and kidney weight (ZEA↑ vs. FDZ) increased. Hepatocellular membrane lipid fatty acids (FAs) referred to ceramide synthesis disturbance (C20:0, C22:0), and decreased unsaturation (C22:5 n3 and unsat. index), mainly induced by DON and to a lesser extent by ZEA. The DON-FB1 interaction was additive on C20:0 in liver lipids. In renal phospholipids, ZEA had the strongest effect on the FA profile, affecting the saturated (C18:0) and many n6 FAs; ZEA was in an antagonistic relationship with FB1 (C18:0) or DON (C18:2 n6, C20:1 n9). Hepatic oxidative stress was the most expressed in FD (reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase), while the nephrotoxic effect was further supported by lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) in the DON treatment. (4) Conclusions: In vivo study results refer to multiple mycotoxin interactions on membrane FAs, antioxidants and lipid peroxidation compounds, needing further testing.