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Whole Grain Intake and Glycaemic Control in Healthy Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, “Federico II” University, 80131 Naples, Italy
Integrated Cancer Registry of Catania-Messina-Siracusa-Enna, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, 95124 Catania, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 769;
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 8 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
Backgrounds: There is growing evidence from both observational and intervention studies that Whole Grain (WG) cereals exert beneficial effects on human health, especially on the metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) to assess the acute and medium/long-term effect of WG foods on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Methods: A search for all the published RCT on the effect of WG food intake on glycaemic and insulin response was performed up to December 2016. Effect size consisted of mean difference (MD) and 95% CI between the outcomes of intervention and the control groups using the generic inverse-variance random effects model. Results: The meta-analysis of the 14 studies testing the acute effects of WG foods showed significant reductions of the post-prandial values of the glucose iAUC (0–120 min) by −29.71 mmol min/L (95% CI: −43.57, −15.85 mmol min/L), the insulin iAUC (0–120 min) by −2.01 nmol min/L (95% CI: −2.88, −1.14 nmol min/L), and the maximal glucose and insulin response. In 16 medium- and long-term RCTs, effects of WG foods on fasting glucose and insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were not significant. Conclusions: The consumption of WG foods is able to improve acutely the postprandial glucose and insulin homeostasis compared to similar refined foods in healthy subjects. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects and the biological mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: whole grain; glycemia; insulin; healthy subjects; meta-analysis; RTC whole grain; glycemia; insulin; healthy subjects; meta-analysis; RTC
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Marventano, S.; Vetrani, C.; Vitale, M.; Godos, J.; Riccardi, G.; Grosso, G. Whole Grain Intake and Glycaemic Control in Healthy Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients 2017, 9, 769.

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