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Open AccessArticle

Agronomic Approach of Zinc Biofortification Can Increase Zinc Bioavailability in Wheat Flour and thereby Reduce Zinc Deficiency in Humans

Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Center for Resources, Environment and Food Security, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9050465
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a common disorder of humans in developing countries. The effect of Zn biofortification (via application of six rates of Zn fertilizer to soil) on Zn bioavailability in wheat grain and flour and its impacts on human health was evaluated. Zn bioavailability was estimated with a trivariate model that included Zn homeostasis in the human intestine. As the rate of Zn fertilization increased, the Zn concentration increased in all flour fractions, but the percentages of Zn in standard flour (25%) and bran (75%) relative to total grain Zn were constant. Phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours were unaffected by Zn biofortification. Zn bioavailability and the health impact, as indicated by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) saved, increased with the Zn application rate and were greater in standard and refined flour than in whole grain and coarse flour. The biofortified standard and refined flour obtained with application of 50 kg/ha ZnSO4·7H2O met the health requirement (3 mg of Zn obtained from 300 g of wheat flour) and reduced DALYs by >20%. Although Zn biofortification increased Zn bioavailability in standard and refined flour, it did not reduce the bioavailability of iron, manganese, or copper in wheat flour. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc biofortification; wheat flour; phytic acid; zinc bioavailability; DALYs zinc biofortification; wheat flour; phytic acid; zinc bioavailability; DALYs
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Liu, D.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, W.; Chen, X.; Zou, C. Agronomic Approach of Zinc Biofortification Can Increase Zinc Bioavailability in Wheat Flour and thereby Reduce Zinc Deficiency in Humans. Nutrients 2017, 9, 465.

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