Background: Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a public health problem. However, the nutrient status of vitamin D in Chinese children is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the vitamin D status among children aged under 18 years in southeast China. Methods: Children who visited the Huzhou Maternal and Child Care Hospital from January 2012 to August 2015 were included in this large cross-sectional study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Vitamin D status was defined as deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL), insufficiency (25(OH)D: 20–29 ng/mL) and sufficiency (25(OH)D ≥ 30 ng/mL). The association between relevant variables and vitamin D status was analyzed by a using generalized estimated equation model and a multivariate regression model. Results: 13,997 children aged under 18 years were included. Of these, 23.3% children suffered from low vitamin D status (deficiency and insufficiency), while 76.7% had a sufficient vitamin D status. The prevalence of low vitamin D status was 29.7% in winter and 23.4% in spring, which was higher than that in summer (21.4%) and autumn (19.9%). Clinical visiting children (32.1%) suffered more from low vitamin D than health examination children (17.6%). Additionally, age and season were independently and significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations, respectively. Conclusions: The deficiency and insufficiency status of vitamin D was very common among newborns and children aged one to 17 years. This indicates that more sunshine and vitamin D–fortified foods are necessary among Chinese children.
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