|Aronis et al. (2012) ||15 obese individuals (9/6) (58 ± 2.5 years)||Double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study (4 days/period) and 4 days of washout||Isocaloric diet||48 g/day of walnuts + isocaloric diet ||↑ Apo A and adiponectinina;|
No changes in fetuin A, resistin, CRP, serum amyloid A, ICAM1 e 3, VCAM1, IL-6 e 8, TNF-α, E-selectin, P-selectin, and thrombomodulin.
|McKay et al. (2010) ||21 healthy individuals (postmenopausal) (9/12) (>50 years)||Randomized, crossover trial (6 weeks/period) and 6 weeks of washout||Habitual (control) diet||21 or 42 g/day of raw walnuts||↑ Red blood cell linoleic acid and plasma pyridoxal phosphate with 42 g/day;|
↓ TC and LDL-c with 21 g/day;
↑ Total thiols within 1 h after walnut consumption with both doses of 21 and 42 g/day.
|Ma et al. (2010) ||24 type 2 diabetes individuals (10/14) (30–75 years)||Single-blind, controlled, crossover study (8 weeks/period) and 8 weeks of washout||Ad libitum diet without walnuts||56 g/day (366 kcal) of walnuts and ad libitum diet||↑ Systolic/diastolic blood pressure (4.0/1.6 mmHg), insulin (3.6 mIU/mL);|
↑ FBG (10.0 mg/dL);
↓ TC (9.7 mg/dL) and LDL-c (7.7 mg/dL);
Improvement of endothelial function (FMD: 2.2%);
No changes in anthropometric measurements, TG, HDL-c, HbA1c, and insulin sensitivity.
|Torabian et al. (2010) ||87 normal to moderate high plasma total cholesterol adults (38/49) (30–72 years)||Randomized crossover design (6 months) and no washout||Habitual (control) diet||12% of total daily energy intake equivalent of walnuts (28–64 g/day)||↑ Red blood cell fatty acids, linoleic (1.2% mol) and α-linolenic acids (0.072% mol);|
↓ TC (0.13 mg/dL) and TG (0.09 mg/dL), especially in subjects with high plasma TC.
|Kranz et al. (2014) ||19 men at risk for developing prostate cancer (45–75 years)||Randomized controlled crossover trial (8 weeks/period) and 2 weeks of washout||Habitual (control) diet without walnuts||75 g/day of walnuts (490 kcal)||Higher energy intake, total fat, total fiber, MUFA, and PUFA ingestion;|
No changes in BW.
|Spaccarotella et al. (2008) ||21 healthy men at risk for prostate cancer (45–75 years)||Randomized clinical trial (8 weeks)||Habitual (control) diet||75 g/day and usual diet of walnut supplement that was isocaloric incorporated in habitual diets||↑ TG peaked at 4 h, and γ-T at 4–8 h;|
↑ γ-T (0.83 μmol/L);
↓ α-T (2.65 μmol/L), α-T/γ-T (3.49 μmol/L), and α-T/γ-T ratio adjusted for weight;
↑ Free PSA/total PSA, although PSA did not change.
|Katz et al. (2012) ||46 overweight adults (18/28) (30–75 years) ||Randomized controlled crossover trial, 2 (8 week/period) and 4 weeks of washout||Ad libitum diet without walnuts||56 g/day of walnuts and ad libitum diet ||Improvement of endothelial function (FMD: 1.4%);|
No changes in BMI, body weight, WC, TC, LDL-c, HDL-c, TG, blood pressure, FBG, fasting, insulin, and HOMA-IR.
|Tapsell et al. (2009) ||50 overweight adults with non-insulin-treated diabetes (no data) (35–75 years) ||Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial (1 year)||Habitual (control) diet without walnuts||±30 g/day of walnuts targeting weight maintenance (around 2000 kcal, 30% fat) + low-fat dietary ||↑ Total fat, PUFA, and protein ingestion;|
↓ Weight, body fat, SAT;
↓ Leptin (all months), TC, LDL-c (6 months), HbA1c (3/6/9 months) insulin (3/6/9 months), FBG (3 months), and HOMA-IR (all months);
↑ HDL-c (6 months).
|Baer et al. (2015) ||18 healthy adults (10/8) (25–75 years)||Dose–response, randomized, controlled, crossover trial (3 weeks/period) and 1 week of washout||Isocaloric food intake without walnuts||42 g/day or 84 g/day ||The metabolizable energy of the walnuts was 21% less than that predicted by the Atwater factors in both intervention groups;|
↑ Fecal wet weight, dry weight, and fat in fecal composition with 42 g/day walnut consumption.
|Brennan et al. (2010) ||20 metabolic syndrome individuals (10/10) (40–75 years)||Randomized, double-blind, crossover study (4 days/period) and 2 weeks of washout||Shakes without nuts during the breakfast + isocaloric diet||Shakes during breakfast containing 48 g/day of walnuts in an isocaloric diet ||↑ Satiety and sense of fullness in pre-lunch questionnaires;|
↑ Area under curve PYY;
No changes in resting energy expenditure and insulin resistance.
|Canales et al. (2011) ||22 individuals at increased cardiovascular risk (no data) (men >45 and women >50 years)||Randomized, crossover study (5 weeks/period) and 4–6 weeks of washout||Lean meat||Walnut-enriched meat ||↑ Paraoxonase activity;|
↓ sICAM, aVCAM and leukotriene B4, paraoxonase-1/HDL-c, and paraoxonase-1/Apo A1 ratios;
Paraoxonase levels negatively correlated with sICAM.
|Lozano et al. (2013) ||21 healthy white men (18–30 years) ||Randomized, double-blind, crossover study (1 day/period) and 1 week of washout||Meal with 60% fat, 15% protein, and 25% carbohydrates||Olive oil-enriched meal, butter-enriched meal, or walnut-enriched meal||↑ Adiponectin at 3 and 6 h after the walnut-enriched meal compared with the butter-enriched meal and higher at 6 h if compared with the olive oil-enriched meal;|
↓ Free fatty acid from baseline at 3 h after the walnut-enriched meal.
|Damasceno et al. (2010) ||18 hypercholeste-rolemic individuals (9/9) (58 ± 3 years)||Randomized, crossover (4 weeks/period) and no washout||Mediterranean diet ||40 to 65 g/day of walnuts or 50 to 75 g/day of almonds or virgin olive oil (VOO—40% of the total fat and 22% of the total energy)||↓ LDL-c in all intervention groups, specifically, 7.3%, 10.8%, and 13.4% after the VOO, walnut, and almond diets, respectively;|
Higher plasmatic PUFA in walnut group.
|Torabian et al. (2009) ||14 healthy individuals (7/7) (19–65 years)||Randomized, crossover study (3 weeks/period) and 1 week of washout||Control diet||Meal containing walnuts (81 g) or almonds (91 g) with nuts providing 75% of energy intake and the remaining 25% of energy from a refined carbohydrate source (polycose)||↑ Plasma polyphenol for both nuts (peak at 90 min), but walnut sustained higher concentration than almonds;|
Higher plasma total antioxidant capacity reached peak at 150 min post consumption of the nut meals, and higher after almonds than walnuts;
↓ Susceptibility to lipid peroxidation at 90 min for both walnut and almond.