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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Marine Oils, Digested with Human Fluids, on Cellular Viability and Stress Protein Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

1
Division of Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering,Chalmers University of Technology, Kemigården 4, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
2
Division of Food Proteins, Structure and Biological Function, Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Chr. M. Falsens vei 1, 1432 Ås, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1213; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9111213
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
In vitro digestion of marine oils has been reported to promote lipid oxidation, including the formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE)). We aimed to investigate if human in vitro digestion of supplemental levels of oils from algae, cod liver, and krill, in addition to pure MDA and HHE, affect intestinal Caco-2 cell survival and oxidative stress. Cell viability was not significantly affected by the digests of marine oils or by pure MDA and HHE (0–90 μM). Cellular levels of HSP-70, a chaperone involved in the prevention of stress-induced protein unfolding was significantly decreased (14%, 28%, and 14% of control for algae, cod and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) involved in reducing oxidative stress was also lower after incubation with the digested oils (26%, 53%, and 22% of control for algae, cod, and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.001). The aldehydes MDA and HHE did not affect HSP-70 or Trx-1 at low levels (8.3 and 1.4 μM, respectively), whilst a mixture of MDA and HHE lowered Trx-1 at high levels (45 μM), indicating less exposure to oxidative stress. We conclude that human digests of the investigated marine oils and their content of MDA and HHE did not cause a stress response in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: Caco-2; human digests; lipid oxidation; marine oil; HHE; MDA; Trx-1; HSP-70 Caco-2; human digests; lipid oxidation; marine oil; HHE; MDA; Trx-1; HSP-70
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Tullberg, C.; Vegarud, G.; Undeland, I.; Scheers, N. Effects of Marine Oils, Digested with Human Fluids, on Cellular Viability and Stress Protein Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1213.

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