We examined the mechanisms and efficacy of Codonopsis lanceolata
water extract (CLW) for treating type 2 diabetic (T2DM) symptoms. Partial pancreatectomized (Px) rats, a non-obese T2DM model, were provided high fat diets containing cellulose (control), 0.3% (CLW-L) or 1% CLW (CLW-H) for eight weeks. The positive control group was provided with rosiglitazone (20 mg/kg bw/day). The control group had lower epididymal fat masses than the CLW and the positive control groups, possibly due to urinary glucose loss, although CPT-1 and SIRT-1 expression was higher in the CLW group. CLW-H significantly reduced serum glucose levels and urinary glucose loss compared to the untreated control. The improvement of glucose utilization was associated with a higher fat mass in the CLW-H and positive control groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was higher in the untreated control than other groups and CLW tightly regulated insulin secretion as much as the positive control, and it was much tighter than the untreated control. Glucose infusion rates were higher during the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp in the CLW and positive controls than the untreated control, and liver glucose outputs were lower during basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions in the CLW and positive control groups than the untreated control group. The increased hepatic insulin sensitivity was associated with enhanced insulin signaling in CLW (pAkt➔pGSK-1β). In conclusion, CLW consumption effectively alleviated diabetic symptoms by improving insulin sensitivity, potentiating hepatic insulin signaling and tightly regulating the insulin secretion capacity in non-obese T2DM rats.
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