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Article

Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance

1
Human Nutrition and Metabolism Laboratory, Health and Exercise Sciences Department, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866, USA
2
Department of Kinesiology, California State University-Chico, Chico, CA 95929, USA
3
Isagenix International LLC, Gilbert, AZ 85297, USA
4
Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA
5
Department of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
6
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, København 1017, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080476
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 27 July 2016 / Published: 30 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Weight Loss: Is There a Benefit?)
Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0–12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13–64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%–12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: protein-pacing; caloric restriction; intermittent fasting; abdominal obesity; heart healthy protein-pacing; caloric restriction; intermittent fasting; abdominal obesity; heart healthy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Arciero, P.J.; Edmonds, R.; He, F.; Ward, E.; Gumpricht, E.; Mohr, A.; Ormsbee, M.J.; Astrup, A. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance. Nutrients 2016, 8, 476. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080476

AMA Style

Arciero PJ, Edmonds R, He F, Ward E, Gumpricht E, Mohr A, Ormsbee MJ, Astrup A. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance. Nutrients. 2016; 8(8):476. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080476

Chicago/Turabian Style

Arciero, Paul J., Rohan Edmonds, Feng He, Emery Ward, Eric Gumpricht, Alex Mohr, Michael J. Ormsbee, and Arne Astrup. 2016. "Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance" Nutrients 8, no. 8: 476. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8080476

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