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Open AccessArticle

Nutraceutical with Resveratrol and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Induces Autophagy in ARPE-19 Cells

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio 70211, Finland
School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio 70211, Finland
Stem Cells and Eye Research Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged 6720, Hungary
Centre of Eye Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital, University of Oslo, Oslo 0450, Norway
Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
Laboratoires Théa, Clermond-Ferrand cedex 63 000, France
Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio 70211, Finland
Department of Ophthalmology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio 70029, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 284;
Received: 27 February 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from Resveratrol Regional Meeting 2015)
PDF [5300 KB, uploaded 13 May 2016]


Impaired autophagic and proteasomal cleansing have been documented in aged retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Omega-3 fatty acids and resveratrol have many positive homeostatic effects in RPE cells. In this work, ARPE-19 cells were treated with 288 ng of Resvega, containing 30 mg of trans resveratrol and 665 mg of omega-3 fatty acids, among other nutrients, with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 up to 48 h. Autophagy markers p62/SQSTM1 (p62) and LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) were analyzed by Western blotting. Fluorescence microscopy with mCherry-GFP-LC3 plasmid was applied to study the autophagy flux, and cytoprotective effects were investigated with colorimetric MTT and LDH assays. Resvega induced autophagy by showing increased autolysosome formation and autophagy flux, and the change in the p62 and LC3 protein levels further confirmed the fluorescent microscopy results. Moreover, Resvega provided a clear cytoprotection under proteasome inhibition. These findings highlight the potential of the nutraceuticals containing resveratrol, omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in the prevention of ARPE-19 cell damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: autophagy; p62/SQSTM1; LC3; proteasome; resveratrol; omega-3 autophagy; p62/SQSTM1; LC3; proteasome; resveratrol; omega-3

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Koskela, A.; Reinisalo, M.; Petrovski, G.; Sinha, D.; Olmiere, C.; Karjalainen, R.; Kaarniranta, K. Nutraceutical with Resveratrol and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Induces Autophagy in ARPE-19 Cells. Nutrients 2016, 8, 284.

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