Next Article in Journal
Relevance of Morning and Evening Energy and Macronutrient Intake during Childhood for Body Composition in Early Adolescence
Next Article in Special Issue
The Effects of Mild Gestational Hyperglycemia on Exclusive Breastfeeding Cessation
Previous Article in Journal
Nutraceuticals and Their Potential to Treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Separating the Credible from the Conjecture
Previous Article in Special Issue
Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution
Open AccessArticle

Temporal Changes of Human Breast Milk Lipids of Chinese Mothers

Nestlé Research Center, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, P.O. Box 44, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
Nestlé Research Center Beijing, Building E-F, No. 5 Dijin Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100091, China
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 715;
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
Fatty acids (FA), phospholipids (PL), and gangliosides (GD) play a central role in infant growth, immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to determine FA, PL, and GD compositional changes in human milk (HM) during lactation in a large group of Chinese lactating mothers (540 volunteers) residing in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Suzhou. HM samples were collected after full expression from one breast and while the baby was fed on the other breast. FA were assessed by direct methylation followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. PL and GD were extracted using chloroform and methanol. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and with time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry was used to quantify PL and GD classes in HM, respectively. Saturated FA (SFA), mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA), and PL content decreased during lactation, while polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and GD content increased. Among different cities, over the lactation time, HM from Beijing showed the highest SFA content, HM from Guangzhou the highest MUFA content and HM from Suzhou the highest n-3PUFA content. The highest total PL and GD contents were observed in HM from Suzhou. In order to investigate the influence of the diet on maternal milk composition, a careful analyses of dietary habits of these population needs to be performed in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: FA; phospholipids; gangliosides; breast milk; chromatography FA; phospholipids; gangliosides; breast milk; chromatography
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Giuffrida, F.; Cruz-Hernandez, C.; Bertschy, E.; Fontannaz, P.; Masserey Elmelegy, I.; Tavazzi, I.; Marmet, C.; Sanchez-Bridge, B.; Thakkar, S.K.; De Castro, C.A.; Vinyes-Pares, G.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, P. Temporal Changes of Human Breast Milk Lipids of Chinese Mothers. Nutrients 2016, 8, 715.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop