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Molecular Basis for Vitamin A Uptake and Storage in Vertebrates

1
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2
Laboratory of Hematology and Flow Cytometry, Department of Hematology, Military Institute of Medicine, PL 04-141 Warsaw, Poland
3
Cleveland Center for Membrane and Structural Biology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8110676
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
The ability to store and distribute vitamin A inside the body is the main evolutionary adaptation that allows vertebrates to maintain retinoid functions during nutritional deficiencies and to acquire new metabolic pathways enabling light-independent production of 11-cis retinoids. These processes greatly depend on enzymes that esterify vitamin A as well as associated retinoid binding proteins. Although the significance of retinyl esters for vitamin A homeostasis is well established, until recently, the molecular basis for the retinol esterification enzymatic activity was unknown. In this review, we will look at retinoid absorption through the prism of current biochemical and structural studies on vitamin A esterifying enzymes. We describe molecular adaptations that enable retinoid storage and delineate mechanisms in which mutations found in selective proteins might influence vitamin A homeostasis in affected patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin A; retinol; lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT); lipid metabolism; visual cycle vitamin A; retinol; lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT); lipid metabolism; visual cycle
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Chelstowska, S.; Widjaja-Adhi, M.A.K.; Silvaroli, J.A.; Golczak, M. Molecular Basis for Vitamin A Uptake and Storage in Vertebrates. Nutrients 2016, 8, 676.

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