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Open AccessArticle

The Association between Dietary Vitamin A and Carotenes and the Risk of Primary Liver Cancer: A Case–Control Study

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 624;
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
Dietary intake of vitamin A (VA) and carotenes has shown beneficial effects for decreasing the risk of some types of cancer, but findings on the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) are inconsistent. This case–control study explored the associations between the dietary intake of VA and carotenes and the risk of PLC. We recruited 644 incident PLC patients (diagnosed within one month of each other) and 644 age- and gender-matched controls in Guangzhou, China. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual dietary intake. Logistic regression analyses found that higher intakes of VA and carotenes were independently associated with decreased PLC risk (all P-trend < 0.001). The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of PLC for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.34 (0.24–0.48) for vitamin A and 0.35 (0.25–0.49) for carotenes. The associations were not significantly modified by smoking, alcohol, or tea drinking (P-interactions: 0.062–0.912). Dose–response analysis showed a U-shaped VA–PLC relationship, with sharply decreased risks at the intakes of about 1000 μg retinol equivalent (RE)/day, and then slowly went down toward the flat-bottomed risks with the lowest risk at 2300 μg RE/day. Our findings suggest that greater intake of retinol, carotenes, and total VA may decrease PLC risk among the Chinese population at an intake of 1000 μg RE/day or greater from food sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin A; carotenes; primary liver cancer vitamin A; carotenes; primary liver cancer
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Lan, Q.-Y.; Zhang, Y.-J.; Liao, G.-C.; Zhou, R.-F.; Zhou, Z.-G.; Chen, Y.-M.; Zhu, H.-L. The Association between Dietary Vitamin A and Carotenes and the Risk of Primary Liver Cancer: A Case–Control Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 624.

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